All. Right it's time, and unless you've been living under a rock somewhere for the past few months you know what time I'm talking about it's, time for caves live hey. Everybody my name is M Chad Edwards and I'm an education specialist, with the United States Forest Service, my. Job is to help make sure that we're learning things and having fun in the process so fingers crossed it all goes well today all, right we, are in the Shenandoah Valley of, Virginia, in a place called Luray Caverns, this, is actually one of the largest, caverns. The largest. Cave. Systems. Haha. The largest cave systems, in the eastern United States and. If. You look around these, chambers, actually, begin dissolving, over 400. Million, years ago so, you know this wasn't made overnight and if, you look you'll notice that most of these structures, around here are reddish. And orange, brownish, color that's, coming from iron present, in the soil above and it trickled as the water and rain drops trickle down they, bring it through here and have painted and decorated these walls it's fabulous beautiful color we, didn't staged this for you this is natural 400. Million years in the making how about it all, right one. Of the things that you'll see a little bit later is actually man-made there's a musical, instrument an organ that will play a little bit later so stay tuned for that, caves. Have all sorts, of interesting, things that you'll find in them the more that you get out and see you'll, you'll notice that they're beautiful natural. Formations. And there are caves. All across the country so I'm encouraging, you to come visit after. You see this program you're gonna want to go even more but right now I'm even saying come, visit and, speaking. To visitors I have a bunch of friends here from Ripa middle school hey, yeah. Yeah. Welcome, I'm so glad you all could come they, will actually be asking, questions of. Our fabulous scientists. Which, we. Just happen to have three, right here. Let. Me introduce we've, got dr. Joanna Kovac she's, a national cave, and karst, program, lead for the USDA Forest Service we, have barb Beasley, a paleontologist. With. The USDA, Forest Service and, we have lima risotto. Or lima, she's a geologist, with the National Park Service now. These, are a few, our scientists we have a bunch more that. Are not going to be on screen they, are equally as important and equally as awesome right. I'm. Gonna introduce him because they'll be answering, your questions, and. And putting them in to the online forum, so they're not here with us but they are we've. Got Gretchen, Baker she's an ecologist, with the, National Park Service and one of our stars from the original caves live we. Have dr. hazel Barton, professor, at the University. Of Akron as she's, also, a, star of the IMAX movie journey into amazing, caves we. Have Fernando Hernandez a graduate, student in. Hydrogeology. At Western, Kentucky University also. One, of our stars from original. Caves live we, have Ben Miller karst. Hydrologist. With the US Geological Survey we. Have Shauna Pierce and archeologists with the Forest Service Lee.
Sandra Nieves Rivera, she's a foyer of forest, soil. Scientist. With, the Forest Service so, many different types of science right, we. Have that's why I'm using notes okay. Dr.. Ben Tobin is a hydrologist, with the National Park, Service dr.. Steve taylor is a research associate with the Denver Museum of Nature and Science one of our awesome partners as well an associate. Research professor at, Colorado, College dr.. Sibyl a Millan is a research, wildlife, biologist, but before service and dr., Risa Carlson, archeologists. With the Forest Service I haven't, actually done the math but I think that's a ton of. Scientists. Okay. Um, so you've probably trying to figure out how can you submit questions well if you are on the caves live website, you can immediately post, those there. Also. If you're in on. The Facebook environment, you, can post, your questions directly, on the. On our page there. As well or. Emailing. To field trips, at, P, W. Net, org. And all, those three channels will funnel to us here we'll answer them as best as we can. Something. Okay, sweet, how about we start with a question from. Somebody. In the room you. Okay better already. Hi rip on middle school is sending their first representative, up. Come on let's let's see what you have. So. How are caves and cave system, worn. Way. To start us off how are Cadiz and cave system swamp that's a great question that's such a great question to start us off with and, as AM chat said earlier when we first started the program he gave us a hint right he said his water moves, through the rock, so for caves like this caves, like the one that we're standing in right now here, at Lorain caverns and, caves in areas of the US and it around the world that are made from limestone. Water. Interacts, with the rock to dissolve away that rock and carry, it away and create these cavernous. Rooms that we're standing in right here, but. There are other types of caves as well yeah. So we're. Here in our solution okay right so Luray, Caverns, is the type of cave that it's called solution okay but we have volcanic, gates and then, we have talents, caves that are formed by rocks piling, on top of each other or sea, caves that form on shorelines, and glacial.
Caves Those are important, as well so different. Type of case three. Different answers you, okay with that. We. Um anybody else from rip on middle school you want to come come on. My. Question is is. Doo. Doo, sudden events, cause the case to form or are they developed over many years, good. Question you think like an earthquake opened, this up that we were asking something that let's see also a really, good question, mtech he was a hint to this as well he said over 400, million years ago this cave started to form so many caves take a very long time to form they started as something very small and then, over lots and lots of years from these huge spaces but as Lima, mentioned there are lots of different types of caves and some, set take less time yeah, especially if they have let's, say wave action, if you're on the coast and you have the sea waves in any also a mechanical, action so some caves form faster, but not fast enough for us to actually notice, you know it will take a long time for us to see a big chamber like this millions, of years and, that's why we have to preserve and conserve them, they're, very valuable to, us and they took, to, form, Thank. You Amina and Martin for those questions really appreciate you all um you, probably have some more hang on we'll come back to you what, I like to do is see if we have an online question. Ready. And available. We. Have an online question. Suite. We. Do I'm. Taking this one. Great. Oh. You've. Got one suite awesome thank you so this is from Miss, Dornan's, class in Galesburg, Illinois. How, big does it have to be to be considered, a cave that. Is such a good question so, in. Terms of federal, lands where the Forest Service and the National Park Service, manage caves caves, are defined by the federal cave resources, Protection, Act and there's no quantitative. Measurement. No number, that we apply to a cave in terms of how big it needs to be it, just needs to be a naturally, occurring void space, or empty space like this under. The under the surface of the earth however. In different states they do have a number that they apply to that so for Missouri. Or Tennessee, where we're barb is from they. Might say a cave needs to be 30 feet long or something like that in order to actually be defined as a cave that's a great question so I can't consider the pothole in the street. Thank. You all right um we have another one, this is from Anna who's actually home schooled in Chesapeake, Beach. Marilyn, hey I've been there before, what's. Your most, favorite cave, and, we're. Gonna have this cave cover its ears hold on okay. I. Think. Mammoth Cave my. Favorite okay because it's in Kentucky, so it's close to where I did a DoD, field trip and, just. Monsters. Just like the name, mammoth it is huge. And. You're a paleontologist and I'm a paleontologist. Of. The elephants, that used to be in North America, did you know elephants, were in North America. No. Yes. I. Have. To say Carlsbad, Caverns, National Park, it's, just a beautiful cave, if you have the chance go visit, it's in New Mexico, I'm, kind of biased because, I work for the National Park Service, but it's it's one of you know those wonders, of the world. So. Do. You want you want to say your favorite actually. Alright. I've been in two caves I think I'm gonna say my favorite, cave is gonna. Be at Blanchard Springs yes. It, was it was awesome the folks there were great and, it. Was wild, there were bats everywhere and. Bat poop everywhere but you know you look past that because. The cave is just so cool we're really happy there's bad food there because that means there's bats there it's, great life yes, yeah. There's, like um. Well this question we saw yes okay we this. One. What's. The smallest area, of a cave you've ever passed through they. Want a story oh. I'm. Sorry and this one is from. Column. From, California. Gosh. The smallest space, I don't know it's a small and so there are places in caves when you're exploring where you have to crawl through when you have to turn your head sideways and, push your pack ahead, of you or drag it behind you, attached to your foot or something like that so that's pretty small.
Or. It takes some I, can't even think of how long like the longest time I spent in a small space like that but they're definitely small. Spaces that we push through to explore caves how about you two do you have any a small space experience. Yes. In Florida. And. You're pushing your backpack, as you go when you're like when is this going to end, it's getting, kind of small so imagine. Crawling, under your chair and see, how much space you have to move from one side to the other not now. It's. Sort of the same feeling, of being in a tight container, place. People. Find fun in so many different ways people. Stick. Themselves no, tiny, caverns um tell, me your name again we've got you want to do a question. It's. Meraki ulica well. Welcome okay my question is how, is the cave still in good condition even, though it's been years since it has been found. Good. Question someone. Nailing. These back to the ceiling that what you're asking. Here. So. Caves. Have stewards, right we are all stewards, of caves and we all help to protect caves through the different things that we do in, the Forest Service and the National Park, Service and then here at larae the owners of Laurier caverns since it's a privately owned cave all, all, take precautions, and do things to make sure that what we're doing on the surface, doesn't, impact the cable oh and they also have, tour guides which you may have seen or Forest Service or National Park Service employees that. Talk to the visitors and tell them you know not to touch formations, and not to take them with them so that other people can enjoy them and scientists, can study them in the future thank. You great question, thank you. Another. You yeah sweet you all are all in the front row so commune so my question is on what impact do, caves have on our daily lives. Mm-hmm. I'm, turning that way thank you what's your name thanks. Lydia. So. We're connected to caves in our daily lives and lots of different ways for one that capture our imagination right. Pretty. Cool huh and, then, also, scientists. Who study caves learn. Things about medicine, like antibiotics, how, microbes, interact. With the environment. How, can utilize them and things like medicines, which, is a good question for some of our scientists, answering, answering, questions online I have a microbiologist. With us and. Then, also through water water. Comes from cave systems in some places so, we. Interact with the water that comes out of cave systems, very. Cool and then people as we talked about as AM chat said people are into all kinds of different things some of us love recreation. In caves and crawling through small spaces. Do, it every day if you join. This team of scientists, one day. Um. Do. Any of you want to jump in on that one I'll go as we have a couple of questions coming in from one line whichever way you want to go. Thanks. Joanna for giving a look at this high-tech coming right in from online all. Right this, one is from Kristin. Glasner, from. Fillmore. Middle School in Fillmore. In New York. What is the mineral composition of the cave we. Have learned about calcite. And chemical. Weathering is there, calcite, in this, cave. Yes. So, part. Of the, formation. Here it's dolomite, which is calcium. Carbonate, form with magnesium but, most of the cave is also limestone, which has. Calcium. There, are some formations, that are form of aragonite, and, you can also have gypsum, in cave so there are different, kind of minerals, that you can find in caves in here, a lot of this video games are calcite. Thank. You um. I've got a second, question, it's. From Vicki, B from, Magnolia, middle school in Joppa Maryland. What. Made you want to be a scientist. So. My earth science, teacher in, third grade I don't know if you guys have an awesome teacher, maybe, in sixth grade third, grade so, I started, doing science, fair and I. Joined the science, club so if you guys have something like that you might want to join and she, took us caving, she took us on our first wild. Tour and, we were in caving, and I realized, I love rocks, I love caves that's what I want to do I don't know how I'm gonna do it and then, I realized I could study geology but, it, was something that I that, was calling me since I was very very young oh, yeah.
And My fifth, grade science teacher Miss Hamilton I'm. From West Tennessee and. I, our. Gravel. Is, actually. Our driveways, and all are loaded with fossils, and she brought the man explained, what fossils, were and of course we had a dirt gravel driveway. And, once. I started noticing and, recognizing. All the different kinds of animals, and fossils that are there I started. Bringing them in buckets and bringing, them into the house so most of the driveway ended, up in the house and so, actually that was my very first time, and introduce to be fossils, and I, have been in paleontology, ever. Since I had, a similar experience to bar but the buckets of rocks I grew up on the shores of Lake Michigan Michigan. Anybody. And. I. Brought buckets of rocks back from the shore of Lake Michigan my dad would take us out we look for agates and and fossils, to toss key stones and things like that so yeah. Very cool. Thank. You so, it's interesting the the rich. History. That we have and we can learn by looking. At the minerals and things that are found we. Will actually jump to a video so, we can learn about the rich cultural, heritage of the native indigenous peoples, of this land and. How caves. Relate. To their their, culture. So. How about the video. Hi. I'm Christopher, capital now, at the Forest Service we, have lots of lands, that we manage and most. Of those lands if not all those lands were once, ancestral. Lands to Native Americans, Native, Americans have been here on our, continent, for, at least fifteen. To seventeen thousand, years, maybe even older, and they've. Been managing, and using and enjoying the, resources, of this. Great nation, for. Four millennia and, many. Of those lands are now of course managed by the Forest Service now, we also have other resources that, other. People, like to enjoy so we need to balance our, commitment. To the American, public but also to our Native, American partners and in, finding that balance we. Have to find a way that we can be respectful, of Native. American spiritual, beliefs, and, religious beliefs as well as let, people come to our forests and recreate now, I'm not Native American I work, for the office of tribal relations and, so when, I speak to you today about the, sacredness of caves. What. I'm doing is I'm imparting, the messages, that Native American tribes who partner with us have. Asked. That we remember now. Some. Caves and their, relationship, to Native Americans, go back millennia, and for. Many Native Americans, today, kazar, sacred, spaces and, the Dakotas, and along, the Black Hills are many caves and one in particular called, Wind Cave that. For the Lakota people is their origin it is the place that they have told the Forest Service they, come, from millennia, ago there.
Are Caves that. Have, been explored by Native Americans you. May have heard of Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, well, Dave Americans have been exploring, Mammoth, Cave and. Getting resources for, at least, 6,000. Years that's a very very long time ago ancient, Native Americans have put a rock art on caves this. Could be pictographs, this can be forms of animals, and sussed oral images. Plants. Anything. That's, spiritually, significant, to those people at that time and even, though that was done a very long time ago it is still significant. To Native Americans, today for some Native Americans caves. Can be origin, places for, others they can be places, where ancestors, are resting for. Others they can play an important, part. Their oral history, and the. Tales that elders, in part, to children so, caves have been an important part, spiritually. And physically of, Native American culture in the past certainly, and we've talked about a lot of the ancient uses of caves but, they're also sacred, places today, they're. Part of a living holistic. Larger. Sacred landscape that. Is, significant. To Native, American, tribes and our, partners, who are tribal. Nations and at the Forest Service we try and find a balance and work with our tribal partners to, make sure that we respect, that, sacredness. And respect. And balance, the, many uses that, people, come to our force to enjoy. Wheat. Quick. Questions. From, online by. The way thanks Chris for helping us with that video um, so quick question from online. This. Was from, Davina from Magnolia, I again from Magnolia middle school in Joppa Maryland, thanks again for watching how. Can you remember the difference between a stalactite and stalagmite wait wait wait it's, my time to shine hold on so, here we go, so. Stalactites. Are the ones that are hanging tight, to the ceiling all right you can picture that you're holding on tight they're hanging, down whereas. Stalagmites. Are the ones that might, get. Big and tall one day from, the drips that are falling down on them all, right yeah. I had one, all. Right I then I have another one on line, this is from, a, sixth-grade, students at Mesa View Elementary School, in Grant's, New Mexico, what. Kind, of equipment do, I need to explore caves. Well. You got to start with a helmet you got to protect your head right and. Then you gotta have boots on we've. All got boots on today, gosh. What else would you need LRU, swords and some blades yes three sources of blade elbow. Pads knee pads in, case you have to crawl like we talked about earlier and, very. Important, you should always have other people, with you not just by yourself you should go in a group of people I appreciate. That you always bring back the importance of the people in case it's not just the resources, it's the peep that are all brought together they, might help you get out of the cave yes in case you get lost yes.
This. Morning. So. How. About barb. Can we talk paleontology. Well I know lots of people have questions absolutely. About yep, yeah. Paleontology. In caves caves. Sometimes. Have very large openings. And they go deep and they, provide, a stable, environment the, same temperature, and. Humidity. And sometimes, a lot of animals, large, animals, and small will, use the caves as, shelter. To hide or, to live throughout, or just to hang out and then, go outside and, bring in dinner so, with. This one, of the animals that is found in caves is a. Giant. Ground, sloth, this. Is a claw, one. One claw similar. To your fingernails like a cat claw or whatever and this. Was. From a giant ground sloth, and. These. Animals became, extinct, somewhere around ten million ten thousand, years ago and, they, think that humans, actually, over, hunted, them because, they're large and slow and they were easy to catch Plus since there was a big they. Threw a really big barbecue, all the time so, they could treat a lot of people, that's what I was picturing yep and, so, another animal. That is also found, in caves and is big is, an. Elephant, remember, I mentioned elephants, before mammoths. And mastodons. Lived. It did. Not live in caves but the animals, that predated, on them or would capture them and, kill them would. Actually. Bring. Body parts, in to feed the families so we'll find. A lot of this material. Material. From elephants. Have. We ever found any fossilized, toothbrushes. Because that thing is huge, No. But. We'll keep looking. You. Keep on digging thank you so much car an. Another, online, question. This, actually is from, some of our friends in Ohio from, Maddox. A third grader from, absorbent. Minds Montessori. School in Ohio question. Is do you collect rocks from caves and sell them do. You do the same with fossils. It. Actually depends, on who owns the cave so, if it's a federal owned by or, managed, by a federal, land management agency, that means the, cave. Belongs, to you and. So, we, do not sell, any fossils, or anything from, the caves. However. If, it's from a private, cave, private. Ownership then. They, may make that decision to sell.
Material. That's from the cave but. Otherwise for, fossils, that's the answer we like. To suppose Leave No Trace principles, right, so. Leave, everything where you found it don't take anything out of the cave with you have. No impact other than just your footprints, so in Forest, Service and National Park Service caves, leave. Everything where it is appreciate. It where it is so that somebody else coming after you could do the same thing and. Be sure not to talk touch, the formations. Because. They're very sensitive and, the oils, from your hands, can prevent those too like mites or stalactites from, growing, so we want to be very careful, when we're in a cave not to knock down things not to break things and if we see somebody that it's breaking. Things let on a dog no let a park ranger no or a Forest Service park. Employee. So that they can you, know do. The right thing because. They we need to protect those resources for future generations. Thank. You so much hey. Um how about another question, from rip on, Leslie. What. Is the rarest animal, found that, you guys have found. Can. You repeat the question what, is the rarest animal, that you have found. Prehistoric. Mom like but anyway usually, I'm guessing. And it's pure gas is that, they're the salamanders. And things that have gone completely, white, and, they're, actually blind because there's no light and, so I would assume that there's not many animals, that have become so dependent, upon the, cave environment. That, those would be rare I'm, sure there's more but, that's my knowledge. Thanks. Thanks Leslie hey we're actually gonna put a pause on questions, so if you have some more hang on because, we're, we have a tour coming through this cave is actually a working cave a working, show cave and there's, a tour group coming on yep. Okay. Now you're, you're safe I promise you. Can walk through there if you like just. Be careful of the mic. You. Can see one of the pieces. The. Sound that you're hearing is coming from the stalactite, the. Stalactite, pipe-organ, it's. Actually the largest musical, instrument in the world and it's covering, over three and a half acres there's over five miles just, of wires running, to make this thing work it took them a full three years to build and they started back in the. 1954. Okay. There. Are little small electronic. Mallets, that, strike, the stalactites, and they had to find the right ones make the right sound and, that's why it's, spread out so far they had to find the right one it'd. Make, a little vibration, and then little microphones pick that up and, it's. Tuned, actually, to the concert, pitch. Thanks. Alison for bringing your group through hey you guys thank you. Jhoanna, you said you liked Kay's for the people, check it out this town is actually drawing, people. Yeah it's great maybe, somebody knew cave scientists, in the group I saw some young ones our concert pianists. So. Now you can say that you heard a rock concert today. Okay. They got it. Another. Question from rip haunt come on bring it on oh we've got lots of hands coming up I hope I hope we have time to get to everybody okay my, name is Monica and my question is why is it important to learn about caves, interesting. Thanks Martha. It's. A great question well, Thank You Monica so. There's so many different reasons why, learning about caves, super. Important there's a lot that we can learn from cave, so you learned about where our water can come from we. Can learn about, past. Climates, we. Can, learn, we. Can be inspired to make beautiful art so, the whole range of reasons why. Different. Ecosystems. So, even. Though you think this cave its bared there's only you. Know stalagmites, hanging, from the ceiling there are many animals, that used to cave to live here and microbes, in like barb said they're also fossils, so caves are great. Repositories. For different. Artifacts, and we had found fossils. That they'd, you, know from millions of years we're, also finding. Baskets. Or different, things, that other humans. Left, behind, when they were leaving on caves and it's. Important, to preserve them so there. Is so much to caves not just a dark, you, know Hall on the ground. Thank. You for that question an interesting, follow-up this one came from online from, Gilmore, Academy, because, it's interesting follow-up there, in Mills Ohio by the way lots of Ohio love today um do, you think that there are plant and animal species that we haven't, discovered. Yet. Absolutely. We're. Always finding, new things that's, why it's always the best thing to do, is to be, very careful if you ever enter a cave and you may happen to may be the first one to always.
Report. It to the owner, or, to a scientist, or someone because there may be something, brand-new. That's in there and even, though caves may not be. Named. After people, but, fossils, can be. Remember. That so yeah. Yeah. Yeah and there's so many caves across around the world that haven't been discovered yet. There's. Still the possibility to, find new caves and with those caves new species and new new. Things that live there in those environments so. Fascinating. I have. A couple of online questions, how about this one why are caves different temperatures, and. Then the second part is that is what is average, and what, cave is the coldest and what cave is the hottest, it's. A lot of questions. It. Depends, where the cave is located so, it's going to be the mean annual temperature. Of the location, of the cave so around here it's 54, 55, degrees, and if. We go to the, tropics, I'm from Puerto Rico so, if we go down there the caves are going to be warmer, because the mean annual temperature, can be for. The cave in the 70s, so it's gonna be hotter and you don't need as many clothes so it depends, if you are in the, desert the, cave is gonna be warmer, so yeah, it keeps up high in the Alpine could have ice in them you have to have even more layers, and clothes and hats to wear when you're mapping those caves so yeah, Johanna used to work in our last gamma to Ordos case we're cold. Alright. This one isn't coming from all in line but up here so. You're in a cave in the desert is it moist and damp like this one, it. Depends, of the being. You, know rainfall. For that area but, for, the cave to be formed they had to have enough rain to, be formed throughout the years so. Interesting. Do, we already do that. Somebody. Asked how, do you keep from getting lost the answers to stick with them so. Focus. Focus. Okay, here we go another question. How. Do you join a caving car, that's. A good follow-up because I'm joined, us as a caving clubs. But. The National Speleological. Society which, is one of our four service partners, has, caving, clubs across the country grottoes, that. Welcome. To members teach them how to go caving teach them about cave conservation, and ethics and, often, they lead trips for new, cavers so that they can explore, in caves, also, you. Can always go out to one of our national caves Association, partner. Caves such as this cave here at Luray Caverns, and one, of their great tour guides will take you on a trip so that you can experience a cave for yourself without any of that gear we talked about like helmets and elbow pads, boots. Those sorts of things so there's lots of different ways depending, on what your interest level is and how, adventuresome. You are do, you want to shared the website oh yes.
The Website for the National Ski, illogical, society, is. Wwk. Org. That's. Easy super, easy it's like our website -. The live part. It's, cool. So we've heard the, terms caves. Caverns. I have, a question of what, is a cenote, and how, do they form that's. A good. Cenotes. Are usually, found in the Yucatan, Peninsula in. Mexico and. They are cards. Depression, so there are large depression. Where, the roof of that, cave had collapsed and they have steep walls and usually. They have water inside the cenotes, and you. Have fresh water that, it's going to flow into, the ocean where. You have soap water so that's, another thing and, it's a Maya or my young word. Okay. There beautiful, cave. Ceiling. Felling mm-hmm and you have steep walls and then, there's water inside, okay can I swim in there yes of course some people do. Write. That one down so. Let's. Take a question there's so many I saw tons of hands going up I'm gonna it's gonna ask somebody from near the front and where I love the folks in the back - a promise, yeah. What's your question brother. Good. Question does bats at sense of echolocation get affected, by, people coming in here making noise. People. Can disturb bats it's true, most. Of the time and here we haven't really seen too many bats when we've been walking around but in a lot of caves they, tend to not. Let people go, into areas where bats are hibernating or, where bats like to roost so that we can protect them so we don't mess with their, hibernation, or as. I'm trying to fly in and out of the cave to go to go eat dinner at night. Good. Question good question I was in a cave and they were bats, flying all over the place and they did not mind me at all they. Didn't care they, were still doing their bat business, okay. It. Was it was fascinating, okay. No they stayed out of my hair yeah that's totally that's, a minute yeah. That's. Not with, us I like to do their own thing. So. Thanks to that question um, we. Will talk, about careers, how about that so what, in the world did you have to study or, what were you interested in that really made you decide to, do this kind of work. Well. For. Me I got involved in this by working. With the student Conservation Association, when, I was in my undergraduate, which, I think I have a fellow SCA. Member. Here so Chad but I, got a job through student Conservation Association, at. Carlsbad, Caverns National Park, which is Lena's favorite cave and, through, that I became interested in caves and interested in how they form and then through, another job with the Forest Service up in the Tongass National Forest in, southeast Alaska, I became, interested in how our activities. On the surface our management activities, impact water, in caves in the subsurface and, so. We, study, geology and. Agra fee photography. Mapping caves and hydrology. Those sorts of things. Interesting. Similar, story different, story barb yeah pretty, much it may be different, when. I went to the University of Tennessee at Martin is, for my bachelor's, and so, at first I took all the geology. And biology and. Geography classes, and. That's. What gave me a very broad. Background, in, geology and. Biology, to. Be able to marry those two, programs within. Paleontology. So. I've. Been, a paleontologist, fell. In love with it the first quarter, because geology. Just came easy to me and then when we hit the third quarter, of historical. Geology which. Had the fossils, in it and all the animals, and all I know I was. Absolutely. Struck. As I love animals, to enjoy, married. The best thing rocks and fossils. So. I, like. Barb I studied geology for, my undergraduate, but it wasn't, until I took a class about. Geomorphology. And caves, that I fell in love our, professor. Took us caving, and I knew I wanted to learn more about those caves and so I started, studying hydrology. So if you're interested in caves you, also need to learn what, happens with the water if, you know you're interested, in one, science, you might, want to combine them so I also did some hydrology. And then eventually I did Paleo climate which, is something that you might not think about it but we, can get information about, what, the climate was in the past studying, caves and that's what I did so it's, there, are many things you can study you can study biology you, can study geology geography.
Hydrology. So, if you want to be a scientist, and this is something that you like there are many opportunities for, you. It's. A cool thing about science, I mean you can study anything. Alright. Find, out what you're interested in studying. Okay. All right question. From online, this, one is from Old Mill Middle School in Millersville. Maryland. Ken, caves disappear, from being worn down so much with water moving through. That's. A great that's a really great question - yeah absolutely. The, first thing that comes to mind for me are glacier, caves is they're melting in a pretty pretty, rapid rate we have scientists, that are studying glacier, caves on national forest lands especially on the west coast and some, of those kids have in just in our our lifetime even in the last like ten years have completely melted, away so that you can't see that they're there anymore. But. Limestone, caves they might take a while for us to notice but they will eventually dissolve, and, they'll be gone so, yeah, it's. Just not in our lifetime, we might not see it we might not see this game we, have another 400 million years with this one, maybe. 200. Water. Slowly carries, it all out. Sealing, can collapse sometimes. But. Never during the - it never it's. All. Right let's. Get. You. Have an elevator ride with. One of these students. You're. Gonna tell them what's important, about caves and sort of a quick condensed, version, okay. Okay. Sweet so, he talked about water along, with kind of mentioned water in. 40%. Of the, US and 25% around, the world water, comes from cool places like this where there are caves called karst areas, which was one of our glossary words from the first capes life and so. Caves. Are super important, to protect because our drinking water comes, out of caves as well as water for recreation, and water, for unique, plants and animals that depend on, water, beneath the surface of the years or at Springs where that water, from the surf subsurface, comes out at the surface so water, is a big big part of why caves cave, systems, and karst areas, as a whole are very important. I'd. Like to add that question for all of you yeah, so. They're. Important, because they hold sediments, as you can see they're sediments, in the caves, speleothems. Are also a type of sediments so those sediments are backwards, for us to study the, climate in the past so we learn about the temperature, we learn about the rainfall and we can make for actions of what's going to happen in the future they, are comparable. To three-ring, records I'm sure you guys have heard about tree rings or deep sea sediments. Or even glacier, records, so, we can find the similar, type of science and then correlated, with what's happening, outside the, cave. Because. With the sediments, that's what protects, the, animals. That died and then. Preserve, them so, that we. Can find them later and study them usually the animals, may be that the founding caves, may not have been preserved anywhere, else and so, we've got this cave that helps, preserve and from in promote science, and gives, us a lot more information about, what the climate was like and, what. Was influenced, by the caves. Yeah. Thank. You man all, right I appreciate that elevator speech because we wanted you all to remember all the things that are important about caves um. In, case you want to refresh yourselves you, can always go to WWII. Org. And, while you're there love. It if you check out the evaluation. Because anytime you fill out the evaluations, you help us to refine these programs, and get them a little bit better for every time we do the next one helps, us learn what you learned and what you need more of well in that site you'll also see tons of resources you'll, have other videos, which, you can go back and re-watch over, and over and over and grab a tub of popcorn and, bring your whole family and, sit right to binge watch the whole case live series awesome. So. Right now I just want to thank oh, wait. Before, we stop, he's. Been asking us all these questions right Anton I have a question for you all right so, I don't know if y'all like that. One. So. I don't know if you guys knew this but am too I was very nervous about going into caves to start with when we started this whole caves life journey so AM chat here. We are, second. Program what's. Your take away what did you learn about caves. What's your elevator speech well. Very speech um all right this is beautiful, and I would have hated to have missed out on all of this we. Live in such a beautiful, amazing world, and our country is so beautiful and grand and grandiose get. Out and explore it don't be afraid, actually try something. There, are resources all across the. Web, that can help you find one in fact discover, the forest org, is even one you can punch in your zip code and find fun things to go to and go hang out and explore and had I not, taken. That first step into, the cave I would have missed out on all this and all the fun and the learning and so.
I Recommend. It if, it's, a cave great go explore it if it's a waterfall go explore it take, somebody with you because I've made, some great friends along the way and had, a ton of fun so, elevator. Speech all about the people and fun. Thank. You Johanna I appreciate you that, way barb. Thank. You so much for being our on-camera. Experts, and, to all of our scientists, online thanks, for answering those questions we, didn't get to get to every I know that we didn't get to get to every single one because, I still have a bunch in my hand but we'll keep answering them, so thank you to all you students out there that are sending them thank. You to rip on it'll school for coming. And. A, very, very, very special thanks, to the Luray Caverns, staff they, have done I mean it's amazing work helping us to get all this stuff set up so we could bring this program to you and. Thank, you to all of you at home for viewing we hope that you've enjoyed it and we'll. See you again online every time you watch just smile and we'll feel it all right thanks, for viewing. Goodbye. Everybody. You.