This. Is our Sun in the, center of our solar system it, is, the only star, in our solar system, it. Looks like a burning, ball of gas, however, it is not on fire, hydrogen. Atoms are being fused together to form helium atoms. In the core of the Sun. This. Process, is called nuclear, fusion. The. Products, of nuclear fusion are heat, and light. The. Sun is made up mostly of the gases, of hydrogen, and helium. And. It. Provides life, to all living things on earth. Mercury. Is the closest, planet to the Sun, if. You look at the surface of mercury, carefully. It. Is full of craters much, like our moon. Mercury. Is very similar, in appearance and, in size to, our own. The. Surface, of mercury has not changed, for billions of years. Because. There is no atmosphere. On. Mercury. There. Is no weather. Which. Means mercury. Has never had any rain, or snow to erode the surface, an. Asteroid, or meteor that impacted, the surface billions, of years ago cratered. The surface of mercury which. Can still be seen today. Mercury. Can brag that. Of. All the planets it has the greatest temperature, change, meaning. It, has the greatest range, in temperature, of any planet. The. Size of mercury that faces, the Sun gets very very hot and the. Side that faces away, from the Sun it gets very very cold. These. Are some of the main features of mercury. Venus. Is the second, planet from the Sun. When. Viewed from a powerful telescope the. Thick atmosphere of. Venus, can be seen. This. Atmosphere, is very harsh, made, up of carbon, dioxide and. Sulfuric, acid, a. Russian. Space probe only lasted, minutes on its surface before, it was destroyed. Venus. Is the hottest planet. Even. Though it is not the closest, planet to the Sun. Because. Of the greenhouse effects. Venus's. Atmosphere acts, like a blanket and holds, much of the planets heat. Incoming. Solar radiation enters. Venus's, atmosphere and. Becomes trapped. Causing. The planet to heat up. The. Entire surface. Of, Venus has been mapped by radar, so we know what physical, features it has, Venus. Has mountains, volcanoes.
Canyons. And deep, valleys. Venus, can be seen in the evening, or the morning, has. A very bright star, for. This reason, it is called the evening or morning star. In. Fact, venus. Is the third brightest, object. In, the sky the. Sun being the brightest than, the moon and then, Venus. Venus. Is. Brighter. Than any star in the night sky. The. Third Rock from the Sun is, earth earth. Is unique because it is the only planet that we know of that supports, life as we, know it why. Is Earth able to support life. Earth. Is at the perfect distance, from the Sun where liquid water doesn't, all evaporate, or freeze, solid. Earth. Has a breathable, atmosphere made. Up of mostly of nitrogen and oxygen and. Finally. Earth's moderate, temperatures, make it livable, not. Too hot or too cold, earth. Is special, indeed because, it is our home. Mars. Is the fourth planet from the Sun, it. Can be seen from Earth as a fuzzy, orange. Dot. The. Soil or surface, of Mars contains, a chemical called. Iron. Oxide, which is orange, in color. Iron. Oxide, is the scientific. Name for rust. The. Rusty, soil of Mars indicates. That liquid water once existed. On Mars. The. Polar ice caps on Mars are made of frozen, carbon. Dioxide, which. Is commonly, called dry. Ice. Scientists. There is. Scientists. Believe there is frozen water beneath, the surface of Mars. Mars. Has. Huge, physical, features, it. Has huge mountains, volcanoes. Craters. Canyons. And valleys. Much. Larger, than we have on earth the. Largest, volcano, in the solar system. Is. On Mars it, is called Olympus. Mons, this. Volcano, would, make Mount Everest, look like a hill. Mars. Has two moons. Phobos. And Deimos. That. Orbit, the planet they. Have the appearance of two huge, asteroids. These. Are some of the characteristics. Of Mars. The. Fourth planet from, the Sun. These. Photos, show the actual, surface of Mars, taken. By various Rovers, and then. Their images, sent back to earth a. Rover's. Arm can be seen in the lower left picture, and an, entire Rover can be seen in the lower right picture. On. Board the rover there are various, electronics. That, allows the rover to collect and, analyze soil, samples. Temperatures. Recorded. Measure movements. Asian etc. Much. Of what we know about Mars, has, been taken, and analyzed. From. Rovers. Mars. Is the best planet, to set up a Space Station. Because. Number. One Mars. Has solid ground. Number. Two the. Atmosphere. And temperature are, not too extreme, where. If there, was a. Biosphere. Or, a. What, we call a space, bubble, on the surface. Of the planet, one. Could, survive. Inside. Number. Three it. Is close enough to get to it. Would take in a spaceship, anywhere. From eight to ten months to, get to, and arrive at Mars. Between. The planets, of Mars, and Jupiter, we find the asteroid, belt the. Asteroids. In the asteroid, belt can. Be hundreds, to thousands, of miles apart, from one another a. Spacecraft. Could easily fly, through, the, asteroid belt. The, largest, asteroid, in the asteroid, belt is, called, Cirrus. Cirrus. Is, 950. Kilometers across. Here. Here. Which. Is equivalent to, 575. Miles, long. The. Second largest, asteroid. In the asteroid belts is best, up, it's, 528. Kilometers, across from, here to. Here which. Is equivalent to 317. Miles long. Remember. That asteroids. Are nothing but very. Large, space, rocks, and. Meteoroids. Are, nothing, more than smaller. Space. Rocks. Jupiter. Is, the fifth planet. From, the Sun, it. Is the largest planet. And. A. Gas, giant, Jupiter. His. Composition. Is mainly hydrogen, and helium. Jupiter, has a very, deep atmosphere. With very little solid, ground. You. Would sink to the center of the planet because there is virtually no solid, surface. Jupiter. Is a very turbulent, planet. With. Bands of high winds moving across the planet, these. Are shown here by the violent, storms. The. Famous red spot is, a hurricane like storm, which has been raging, on, for, over 400, years. This. Storm, is so massive, that three, earths could, fit inside, of it easily. Jupiter. Has the most powerful magnetic. Field. Of. Any planet, it has a thin, dark, ring. That. Was discovered, by the Voyager, spacecraft, when, it flew by it in 1979. Earlier. This year it was discovered, that during intense lightning storms, Jupiter, can form diamonds in its atmosphere, and even rain liquid diamonds. These. Are. Jupiter's. Four largest. Satellites. Or moons. This. Is two patern this. Is Ganymede, this. Would be, Callisto. Europa. And then, Isle. Saturn. Is another giant gaseous, planet. And, it has such a low density that would actually, float, in water. Thus. You see the Saturn. In the bathtub. Like. Jupiter's Saturn's, atmosphere is, composed mostly of hydrogen, and helium gas. Wind. Speeds can reach as high as one thousand miles per hour which, is just about as fast as a speeding bullet. The. Highest wind speed ever recorded on, earth during a hurricane was in 1996. During tropical, cyclone, Cinthia when. Gusts reached up to, 253. Miles per hour. Galileo. First studied the rings of Saturn in 1610.
Each. Of these pictures shows, the, Rings some, of them close up. These. Rings are made up of thousands, of icy rocks, revolving. Around the planet. Towards. Saturn's. Surface the, carbon in air, can be pressed into graphite, yes. Saturn, has pencil, and flying around, even. Closer to the core. The, carbon is pressed into diamonds if, a human were to travel to Saturn the diamonds were cut, through their body like, countless little bullets. Notice. The X over. The telescope. That's because, Saturn. Is, the last planet. That, you can see without. A, telescope. Saturn's. Spectacular. Rings are actually, made up of seven, major rings, each color, represents. Rocks. Of a different chemical composition. That make up the beautiful ring structure. The. Composition. Of the rings are made up of tiny, icy. Rocks. Some. As small, as a speck of dust to. As large, as a house. If. You look in the upper left hand corner you, will see Titan. This. Is Saturn's, largest moon. Now. What makes this moon so interesting, to scientists, is that it's the only moon, that, actually, has an atmosphere it's. Shown by the blue. Glow, around, the planet. Scientists. Believe if life is going to form on any, moon, or any, other planet it would be Titan, that. Would first. Evolved. Life because, of its atmosphere. Uranus. Was the first planet to be discovered. In. 1781. In, 1781. William. Herschel was looking at the night sky and. Saw an object that, was in a different position each night at. First he thought it was a comet, but, calculations. Showed it to be a new planet, the. Methane gas present. Let's. Try that again the. Methane gas present, on the planet causes, its bluish color. Yearnin. Uranus. Rotates. On its side and has a series of eleven rings. Which. Were first discovered, in 1977. Hereness. Is one of three planets that have retrograde. Rotation. It. Has a strong magnetic field, which, makes the planet glow. In. This picture, it. Shows the. Rings of Uranus. Rotating, looks, like it rotating, on its side it's. Actually, that the access. Is tilted, over 90 degrees so. It. Looks like the, Rings are rotating, on its side. The. Rings themselves are, made of methane ice, has. As the center, inner. Core. Of the. Planet. Is made of methane and ammonia slush, and they, believe that the core of your ear neskowin. Or. Rock. Neptune. Our most distant, planet his. Home to extreme, weather similar, to the other gas giants. While. It has storms, large, enough to swallow the entire earth in, bands of weather that Merc the planets latitude, it. Also has the most violent, wind in the solar system, which can reach an astonishing. 1,500. Miles per hour, because. Neptune's, topography. Is fairly flat there. Is no friction to slow down these incredible, gusts of wind like. All of the other gas planets. Atmospheric. Carbon compresses. Into Diamond, rain a trip, to Neptune, would also include. Ding to the set sound. Barrier break as the wind blows through the visitor. Although, the visitor would freeze solid almost, instantly. Here. We see at. One time there was a dark spot on Neptune that. Dark spot has not what used to be a storm, but. Is no longer there. Neptune. Has two rings both. Made of methane ice. And. Again they believe that the core of, Neptune. Is probably, rocker ice with, the mantle being, made up of water and ammonia slush and an. Atmosphere of hydrogen and helium and, methane gas. Blue. Experiences. Masses. Her, massive swings. And temperature, due to its, highly elliptical orbit. Elliptical. Once again means oval-shaped. Orbit. When. Pluto is farthest, away from the Sun it is completely, frozen over as. It gets closer to the Sun the, gas heats, up and it produces a gassy, atmosphere.
Which. Also hurts, its planetary, status as it acts more like a comet. Pluto. Is no longer considered. A planet because it is so unlike all, of the outer planets near, it it, is tiny, rocky, and has, no rings the, complete opposite, of all the other outer planets. Because. Of Pluto's elliptical. Orbit it was actually, closer to the earth than Neptune. Until. 1999. Pluto. Is now considered, a dwarf planet or, planetoid. You. Can see here is a close-up picture, of this, is Karin. Pluto's. Moon. And, then. This is another, further away picture. Of Pluto with, karyn's, moon and, some. Characteristics, of luto if it was still a planet it would be certainly. The smallest, the. Coldest. And. Those, involved. I found, some very cool graphs for us to look at I'm, gonna begin with the graph in the upper, left hand corner this. Shows the temperature, temperatures. Of the planets, as. You can see Venus. Has. The highest temperature, and then they, gradually, the, temperature, of the planets decrease, as they get further from the Sun. The. Next graph shows the density. Of the planets and, what you can see here is, that. The inner planets, Mercury Venus Earth and Mars are, the most dense and the planets furthest, from the Sun and Jupiter Saturn, Uranus Neptune, our. Least. Deaths, and, that is because the planets closer the Sun are solid, and rocky and the, planets, further from the Sun are made of gas. The. Next chart. Shows the mass of the planets as you can see Jupiter. Being the most massive, planet and. Then, Saturn, and then look, at the comparison. Of the other planets. If. We look at the next chart gravity. On the planets, is. Very, much, like. Shows. The mass of the planet because, Jupiter, has the greatest gravity, because it has the, greatest mass. And. Then Saturn, being the next greatest, and then Neptune, and Uranus, so. Gravity, value, depends. On how, massive the, planet is, the next, chart is orbital, velocity, of the planets this is the actual, speed of the, planet as it goes around, the, Sun now. We learn that planets, that are closer to the Sun go. Around the plant or go around the Sun faster, because. These planets, feel a stronger. Gravitational, pull. From. The Sun, planets. Further, away from the Sun feel less of a gravitational. Pull so. They, their, inertia or the speed that they go around the, Sun is not as fast. The. Last chart. Is a, day on each of the planets now a day is equivalent to one, rotation. That. Is, when, a planet, spins, once, on its axis. This. Shows us that Venus, has the longest day and then, mercury. And. Then Pluto. With. Jupiter, having the shortest, day I believe spinning. Once, in 10, hours. So. You can see there's some neat graphs here to look at and compare data. But. I'd like to show you now is, this, is a size comparison chart. Of Earth Venus. Mars. Oops, let's go back there at Mars, Mercury. And Pluto. Here's, a size, comparison of, Jupiter, and Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and, then we have Earth and, that, would be Venus. Probably. Mercury, that. Might know that's Mars that's mercury, and then finally Pluto so, it gives you a little size comparison of. The planets, and. Now we have a size comparison. With. The Sun so, the Sun being, obviously. The. Sun being the. Actually. The most massive, object, in our solar system as you can see. And. That. Ends. Our planet. Tour I, hope. You, learned a lot of new and interesting things, about, the. Sun and planets, in our solar system.