Romain Troublé & Colomban de Vargas: "Tara, the Boat That Pioneers [...]" | Talks at Google

Romain Troublé & Colomban de Vargas:

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We. Are lucky to have a. Home at Hubli executive. Director, of the tax petition foundation who, will present the, phoenicians. Staff and come. Back on the major explorations. And then. In, a second part : Banda Vegas director, of the, statue. Music, the Oscar and, coordinator. Of the Taha Ocean expedition, he, will use his scientists, glasses, to, present the past discoveries. And in, a innovative. Way of research. Let's. Watch, a quick video, now. To. Better. Know about our. So. Let's welcome on stage a, woman, who'll a, director. Of star, up expedition. Hi. Everyone, hi everyone I'm home, I'm a sailor I served America's, Cup twice in my life when I was a younger. And I, was so still in biology in. The Oh so when I was younger now I am more than 40 years old but I'm, heading, Tara since, 15. Years now is the etchant bagua the president, of the foundation. We. Study we, studied the ocean we are say I'm a sailor we are sailors we were so scientists as john. Told, told, you we. Are all together on this spaceship earth across. The universe at millions, of kilometers an hour and. We. May only know a. Few. Things about, about. These, planets she's. Blue when. You ask all the astronauts and I asked Thomas K recently, has. The planets from the sky he said this blue is a blue planet and and, 70%. Of, the planet is made of ocean. Huge. Surface. Of exchange with the atmosphere, a huge. Playground. For sailors of course. But. If you put which, you take all off all, the water of the planets and you put you, want to put it in a sphere - just to give you an idea of the volume this. Is the air we. Breathe, the atmosphere, we, put in a sphere the sphere into these sides and. If you do the same with the all the water of the planet this. Is the ocean water very. Very tiny. Ball or 1,400. Meters in, diameter, the. Diny dots here is the. Freshwater and the smaller, dots is drinkable, water so and our, life depends, on this small, ball of ocean. When. You breathe when you get. Proteins. On the ocean the. Co2 is stored in, this ocean mainly, so, it's really a life-support, system. So, antenna we try to to. Take. You in a trip take the planet take the manatee in a trip on, science, discover. The planet try to understand, its fates where. We go on this we. Try to share that with. As many people as we can through, the media through the Google. Youtubes with the networks, in, many, places we go in a world we been, causing. About visiting, about. 65. Countries over the last 10 years which is quick kind, of big big, trip, of. Course we share that with kids, in, the schools, mainly. French-speaking, school today but we are now developing. Curriculums. For overseas. We. Also ran first we, also teach 2000 country it's hard to go in the ocean how to set. Up scientific. Boards how to understand, how. To. Use. The, the richness of the ocean for their behave, for the father for. The economy for the development and this. Is a very strong commitment. We've, got since, two years now and, also as John's, told you we are putting. Some scientists. On Ocean at the UN with, every, 3-4, months to. Teach. As well, the. People the, kids the. Southern countries and the, states and the map and the negotiators, so.

Over The last. 15. Years we. Soon. 15 years we did many, projects, but we need four of them and I will try to explain you what we did and why we didn't win one. In. Ten years ago on the climate in the Arctic within. Another one four years in, a row fishing, plankton. Invisible. Animals. You. Fish you don't see what you fish but you fish every day so for us crazy. Crazy you think you're really crazy guys. Of. Course when you fish plunked on across the ocean you. Fish a lot of plastic and this is one of the main disaster, we're. Facing today this. Is a reversible, disaster, if we do something we will stop that but this is a very important disaster and. We. Also spent a lot, of time right, now the boat is at the middle of these two years, expedition, in the Pacific. She was this morning in Kimbe in Papua, New Guinea. Getting. Ready for a new survey, in this part of the island we study the coral reef ecosystem. Over all the Pacific for, two and half years so this is now. Back. 10 years ago we studied. The Arctic Ocean this is the North Pole this. Is the Arctic, region. And using the North Pole here and. This. Was done by a guy crazy guy wanted to be the first guy at the North Pole 133. Essentially, before cold nonsan he missed his goal but we. Did the same track and the only one to do it to do it 10. Years ago and we drifted across, the. Arctic Ocean doing, science maybe not go into details but take measurements, everywhere, down in the water in, the atmosphere on, the ice with. Its 6, months of dark in the dark 6 months this, activation lasts a year and a half six. Months in the dark. Non-stop. Pushed. By the wind the, ice is causing the ocean we did five hundred five thousand kilometers doing. Nothing you the world of Terra this, world that you see here is drifting, 10 kilometers per day in the Arctic pushed, by the prevailing, winds and. If. You look at how, it works you know that it's like technology tectonic. Plates you. Have the sound here maybe in the in in, the. Put, up the volume please. And. The. Place in the Arctic they moved not the same speed and sometimes they crushed a boat and they this, is real time and this nothing. You can not, thing can we do in a planet can stop. That is it the energy the. Arctic is colossal. This. World is, drifting, 10 kilometers per day, so. You study that and you sit, there it is a six month day six, months dark and six months they again and this. Was, ten. Years ago big. Achievements, will change, cool members, we change scientists we. Do rotation, logistic, rotation, to to, to get to get, press. People on board and to tell the story of the Arctic and then again funny unites this. Was done ten years ago and then back from discount this. Upper. North, Pole area. We. Said okay what gonna be the fate, of this ecosystem the, plant ocean ecosystem, in a changing climate what. Will be the future what what can we as tensed and this is plankton is. It drifting across the ocean. Every. Day everywhere, billions. And billions of, organisms. And. Kalambo will talk to you more about that so. When to study this ecosystem. Across. The planet for four years on this, track and we collected, in every stop we stop and we corrected, fished plankton. Ecosystem, the war ecosystem. In. The same way, repeating. Always. The same kitchen on board maps and filtration very, boring, but. You cannot imagine the enthusiasm, you, can see on the other brothers these for use because. The people believe that they want they were doing. Something that was completely new, like. Kannamma, said very often is like being in the being. In a in. A rainforest, with, with. The nets catching, birds and. New. Things, so. This was a crazy project including. The nasty question and Cuomo will talk to you more about this science and this knowledge we. Studied ecosystem, completely, bacteria. Viruses. Organisms. Allergies, we. Call protists, he's a crazy, POTUS man Columbo. And we try, to understand all this behavior. This is the fish food we talk about fish food the fish they, eat that and they rely, on that. So. Far we did a lot of data. It's a big ocean data we get oceanographic. Data molecular. Data genomics. I'm a Jesus, legal. Data every, sample because we were, in there many times in countries. That that owns, these. Organisms. And. We have other, connectivity. Connectivity with, data data centers and this, huge, data is one of the biggest and the first what time which we described. Between ecosystem, completely. As. A wall the, first time ever it is done and Kannamma will talk to you about now, and. These scientists. We work with across. The world twenty five laboratories, from 10 countries they, did publish in science did the cover of science two years ago and. This was the start of a crazy adventure, in, science, and this is still ongoing now, even. If to be came back from this trip, six.

Years Ago. Doing. That you you kind, of fish all these organisms, but. Also you fish a lot of plastic. Plastic. Bits that, is degrading, into the ocean and it's, that, is catching all the life or. The life of of, the. Ocean is also sticking to it as a like, a rock it's nice to be at the Sun for algie's, enjoy. The Sun make. Their life and they are drifting across the ocean like that if. You this is a simulation for the Mediterranean Sea you you, drop on the model of the Med you, drop ten particles, in every of these four main, rivers. And, you wait for you to see how are they going this is the this is a tremor. This. Is six months. Then. Ten, persecuted, every day for a year this. Is about. To be 3/4 I. Can. See that particles, on the road are going up to Alexandria. At the end of the year which is completely crazy how. What. We do on land we'll be doing our cities in our daily life the. Impact we can have on the ocean and it's, done, it's life and you. Can see different patterns, different. Streams. Across. The Mediterranean, Sea. Just. To show you the impact, so we did a crazy. Seven-month. Journey in, the in the Mediterranean Sea we collected these plastic, things. Over. Seven. Months three hundred, location and we are now still, studying. Them. Coming. Back from this expedition. One. Of the main. Again main ecosystem. On the planet beside. Plankton, in, Tampa Bay that biodiversity of the ocean that is storing a lot of biodiversity 30%. Of the biodiversity is. Linked. To coral reefs very. Small places but huge, diversity, huge ecosystem, huge. Biomass. As well so, we did we decided to put, tariffs of two and a half years on an expedition to study always. The same or at the same sample repeated. Work over, the two and a half years to sample. The reef is. Surrounding, waters the. Organism, the animals and. I. Can show you here in the video please, a. Crazy. Video showing you them super, macro activity. Of coral reef you can see it's beautiful. And. You will understand also the issues. With garbage today we also talk, rot about bleaching, reefs. To. Get white, but. First look at the beauty of the of these organisms. So. We have divers of TOD diving. In many many places so, far with it 20 20 states, this. Is these are states small, states. If. You look into details this is a. 10 centimeters. This. Is a millimeter. This, is Carl it's an animal it's like an like a jellyfish, upside, down fixed. On a rock and his feeding and it's living he. Has a like, us we, have bones inside. Korra's, are creating credible. You can see these guys getting, out at night usually daylight, you don't see them. And. So they feed this is the mouth it's an animal they feed it also the. Color you see here is energy they have in the body that. Are giving them 90%, of the sugar they need to live, ten. Percent is what they eat. And. When there is too much stress too, much temperature, too, high they, get white the ID is going away and. If. It lasts too long the, animal maybe, is starving, and dies. And. Then it's completely. Covered. By cigarettes. In the ocean. This. Is climate change this is what we talk about now everywhere. Every year. Even. In very remote places this is 4000, kilometers for many towns. In the in the world, nearby. Pitka. All, white. So. This is not a direct impact is really a global impact and. Today. We have very few. Understanding, of what's going on or how this coral reef is behaving what. Other. What. Other mechanism. The process inside to resist. Climate. Change to resist pollution. And. We. Were used to Maine, El Nino events, of warming. Of the Pacific every, 6-7 years over the last 50. Years and for. The last three years every.

Year We find we, can see bleaching, event sometimes the big recover and. The reef is getting back to each state and, some time is too hard and they don't recover so. This, will not disappear, but the. Reef will change how, they will change the. Co system will change the species, will adapt and change how. Do we change what will be the fate of this in the future we don't know and it's very important for our states because. Reef is tourism. Economy. Fisheries. Protection. Against storms. Etc. So. The Jolla now is like that we, are here now in, Kimbe. This place we. Are still a lot to go and come, back in France in October in a year October 2018. Kind. Of pictures, of breaking, down below. Another. Picture. Of a young boy here, and. You. Can see that we are sampling the reef we, are. Getting. Plankton. Over the reef to see which are the interactions of these. And. This will be doing that every every, day is also so it's a hard life, it's. A hard life if they work a lot they work a lot and a lot every day on board they complain a lot because they work too much but but. They do a an. Amazing amazing job. And. The policy wise we this, project is enough, both, science. Outreach. Public, easy, to understand, kids on board that is very kind of a bizarre project. That is attracting. Donkey moon twice on boat era in New York in 2012, and. In income to talk to anyone in Paris the boat chara was in Paris downtown, he. Came again on board, we. With her son and, this. This guy Erika's naughty a nice, bill was a main backers but also any Kazan he was one, of the main thinker of this plankton project, that column, or we talked to you about in, in a while. Education. Is key and, I, will not go wrong about that because I'm short, of time but, everywhere the boat goes we call we get people on board everyone, come in Paris there were 10,000, kids came on board with the schools we. Do, pitches. With talks. In in the schools we try to explain them what we talk about what. We do, give. Them the feet of the ocean and everybody's. Everybody's. Doing it the scientists. The sailors everyone. This. Is really a great great time good energy good good, good shots of energy. And. The, next is of, course the science is going on and cognomen will talk to you about that well. So in the future we're going to go again in the Arctic Ocean into. 2020, we will we. Are developing now a polar, station pretty big polar station to put some scientists. On the ice and to understand how this Arctic Ocean is affecting our climate, to. Understand what's, live below the ocean what is the life there nobody, knows about it nobody. Had the clue about it and this, will be this will be in 2020. And this device, showed. Drift across the Arctic. Ocean for the next 20 years as we. As we plan, to do it so it's going to be a long journey and, it would be the only manned station, in the Arctic then. Thank. You very much and I welcome, kumamoto. -. Come on bro. So. Fasten. Your seatbelt because you're gonna be here, silence now so stay. Calm okay breathe normally and. And. Of course I would like to like the the backers, of this project the scientific, package but, also the private backers that is involving, this project since 10 years thank. You come on the doors, nice introduction. Okay. So I'm Columbo I, am NOT a sailor but I am a Swiss oceanographer. And. I was, very lucky to to. Meet actually humma and, also. This this person, that whom I mentioned already any. Cap snotty, not. Sure if is this is working or not yeah. Well so, akiza is an amazing, you know cell biologist from the EMBL he, spent like 30 years of his life trying, to understand how how.

Cell Or to order you know cell divides and all how all molecules within a cell take a shape and auto organized so is the science of self-organization, using. Statistics, mechanics. You. Know and erm so, it's really the shaping of life with the element of life and when, I met Eric he showed me this movie which. Is a zebrafish so you can see here, all the cell of a little, fish dividing. So it's a real fish like a hunter a spin microscope, and. You can see the this, baby fish taking shape under your eyes singles. All the cells so. It's just amazing it was the beginning of spin microscopy and, so. This is really self-organization. Of an organism, from the organism on when Eric showed me this in 2007. I was. Thinking okay I should follow this guy and, I should have any, rich, besides. Being an amazing so, he did all this in, his lab they develop the best microscope, and, Eric. Was is also a great sailor he's an amazing sailor but, he never looked you know in the ocean of the, life in the ocean but he was brave enough to to. Think okay let's let's try to understand the ocean that way and that's what we, had in mind. So. Basically. We. Are you know today we are really entering this era, of of ecosystems, and we, don't see any any organism, anymore as a single organism but. As an ecosystem and mainly human human, body right you. Know there are millions now of euros, and dollars spent. To understand, how many microbial. Genes because we have many more microbial genes in our body than human genes we have only 25 million you. Know human genes we. Have many more bacterial. Cells that human cells in our body so today. That really really see the human. As an ecosystem and. Also we start to we start to want to map all. The cells of human you I don't know if you have heard about this new project called. You human cell at last it's actually funded, essentially, by Zuckerberg by the Facebook, foundation and where. They have now we have the technology to sync to sequence single cell of. The. Genome of single cells or the express genes of single cell now the idea here is to is to map you know all the cells because we don't even know how many different cells we have in a human body and but. Each all, the cells take different shape based on the same genome they see different shape and they and, they make ourselves right, so, we will really have this ecosystemic, vision, of human. But. In fact what we forget often, and this is very interesting this is a this. Is a human cell is the macrophage you have this cell in your blood now you have thousands of these cells in your body.

Hunting. For bacteria you have here the help our site it's another type of cell now, this cell you know I just just eaten food it's cleaning your body out of bacteria. So, it's really you, ecosystem, and, what is fascinating sorry, I I. Was. Too fast. Is. That in fact if you go to the ocean you. Can see this kind of cell. That. Is that's, an amoeba for instance you. Know hunting for micro alga here, a micro G and, the rest on blocks is amazing and in fact you know the composition, in salt between your blood on the ocean is, strictly almost the same the content, of salt is almost assembly the proportion is different but, we are really a working piece of ocean, and so, I think so, the origin of life you know is in the ocean all, these organics I've invented or the genes we have and all, the shape we have you. Know in ourselves and so we really need to understand this is systems. Which is much more complex than human, of course so. What we decided in 2008. Was. Really to to, jump into the big bath and to. To. Go to this like home and set to this global, ocean which, you, know in every liter of seawater you have between 10 and 100 billion organisms, including, in a very litter and. The ocean generates, all this it's actually not blue, planet it's a Bluegreen planet you. Have all this green here which is foot you know photosynthetic, cells like in the tree with, single-cell. Organisms, which, produce half of the oxygen. That we breath on the planet, the. Ocean is also extremely, reactive to global, change so, it will feed back on climate, very fast so we really need to understand how, this feedback the resilience, of the system and how, it will give. Us an answer to what we imposed to Planet Earth. Now. So, we decided basically as to, in. This era of eco systems biology to do so Eric, spend 30 years on these billions, of euros. Now. There are many many projects on this it's also billions, of of your loss so. We decided to go directly to this one to the to, the full system then at earth the most the biggest system and, the advantage of this system over you know classical, system that we know ecosystem. That we know better, maybe as kids. You know because we see these systems is. That in these ecosystems the organ is very, big so it's very difficult to sample these systems ok, forests it's, impossible to sample trees and to and also the dynamic of these ecosystems, is, very slow you, know the climax of the life of a forest is but bigger than a human, life one. In the plant when you have a bit of everything you have you will see you have a bit of all life but, it's changing it's reorganizing. Like the fish you know. Juvenile. At I showed you the baby fish it's. All the time reorganizing, so we can we think, we can understand fundamental, principle of of. Ecosystem X. So. The beauty of plankton as I said is that you don't have the tenth orders. Of magnitude across. Which life develop, it. Stops basically at a few centimeters and, so we developed the protocol to sample plankton, from viruses to bacteria to, protist to animals, and there. Is no plants because photosynthesis. Is done by these protists. We. Put on the boat so. It was it was crazy because it. Was in 2008, we had very little time to equip the boat. So. That what was, fantastic, we start was, the flexibility, of the reactivity which. You can never do you know in you know in Academy. So. We we. We equip the lab and, we were very lucky because it was just the beginning of of the, high-throughput. Sequencing with, the Illumina, method so. It was just the time where the price, of sequencing was, dropping, terribly, and. So we had you know different nets and perms to, sample. This fruit plantain we also had a very nice horsy, which. Is an instrument to measure all kinds of environmental, parameters so. I will tell you about the data we collected we. Collect the data in. Omics. So basically DNA and RNA express genes. Just. For the for the people who like data we. Collected, about. 900. Billion Illumina. DNA reads more. Than 90 our basis of raw DNA data. From. Seven organismal size fractions from viruses to animals and from about for more. Than 4000 plant and communities. We. Yeah. This is just again the number. Of data the. Number of computing, time we have used for now and. The. Number. Of firm of. Analysis.

That We have done and as you can see it. By, fights to to time twice, a. Hundred. Times higher than the next project, in, ocean systems, ecology so, it's really the biggest by, far the biggest you. Know ecosystemic, project, in the ocean what. Is very hard in ecology is to collect you know homogeneous. Data standardized, data matter across. Sufficient. Spatiotemporal scale, so. This is for the DNA data and then. We this is very original we call we used a lot of instruments. The. Flow cytometry this. One we developed and I will tell you a few words, about this one flow cams or scan and UV t2, image as well the plankton so we took a lot of images of those organism in the same site and, in a different depth and. So this this was this we haven't almost touched the data you know it's very. And. So we got for, now we have six million images of plankton, a lot. Of them already validated by experts and we, have a which. Represent more than 330. Terabytes, of data. We. Also have done a website. Which I think you. Know. An. Instrument on the web an online, image. Platform. To, basically share this image project-by-project, with, experts because. We need a semi-automated, you know machine learning processes, to to, learn the machine to recognize, the images, and so. There is no you know also, there is a gene bound for four genes there is new international, banks, for genes there is nothing equivalent. For for image in ecology in science so, it's really something that we need to to, think about okay. Time now let's go into the data except so it will be a bit harder. So. We publish this wonderful, special. Issue in science and of course I mean, we have now I think we have published 150. Papers since. 2009. So I it's, hard to speak about it in ten minutes but. What, we can say. From this data I think here. The three papers concerned the viruses, the bacteria. And. Eukaryotes. Eukaryotes are cells. With the nucleus and. What is amazing you know you don't need to look at the detail but is that we saturate. Many. Of these of this, diversity, meaning. That the more we sequence the. Less we find new things and we are we, we, are we basically we sampled the ocean naturally, enough the surface of the ocean and this was just from the surface to. Basically not see anymore anything any new, so. We push the diversity, very far away we sequenced 40. Million you know protein, coding genes for bacteria, but. We see most of them which is fantastic you know so we see the limit of this diversity so we can start, to think in terms of ecosystem mix, there. Is just one compartment that we didn't saturate and this. Is the eukaryotes. Eukaryotic. Cells like ourselves we. Are we sequence more and more on there isn't many more new so we are now reaching 150. Million, eukaryotic. Genes in the in this plantain and it's. It's endless we. Are far from saturation, in, fact most of these genes are known they. Don't look anything that. We have in the database and, the. Other one we can just attach, them to known, things but it's very unsure, yet so. This is really amazing and in fact I think we are. So. We just, to show you an example of what we can see the now with the image, data, with. Using this instruments, we just take picture of the marine snow the. Marine snow is all these organisms that fall down to the bottom of the ocean and which, is actually the mechanisms, that maintain also the atmosphere. We breath this. Instrument, with. This instrument we learned we teach the instrument and in the data to, recognize this kind of shape, which. Correspond, to giant, protists, and we realize that this giant protists are in fact have. A bigger biomass, than all animals, or, animals, in the plankton in. The subtropical. And tropical regime, here. And. They look like that I mean no one knows these resilience. Is colored Ariens I think. There was like something like 90 species described these, guys you know running. The world. If. You if you dive in there in the middle of the ocean you will see terms of this little guy floating there a beautiful creature in symbiosis with algae, like corals that are a bit like piece of corals floating around, the world I. Think. We are, almost coming to a new theory, of life of. Biological, diversity for. A long time we thought that life was you, know for three centuries that. Life was in animals and plants and and the diversity was decreasing toward microbes, then. Over the last few years over the last three, decades. Because. They started people started to sequence the lead with small animals if they we.

Thought That the diversity was in the viruses and bacteria. And. Now that we have a real ecosystem, of view of the, first, system we, see that there is a peak. Of diversity, of genes of Organists, in. The middle that I like between you know few microns and 15 microns that's where really life as complexified, and no one know, when I studied this piece of life you know so, we speak about diversity, now, we know that diversity is there and we. Actually have sequence we have we went to the Amazon forest, and, is, the same you. Find this peak of life which. May call life middle, class lower middle class in fact so. These organisms like that, they. Are my my, obsession a bit protist. So. At least I want you to remember, this name and so. Protists, are beautiful, creature. So. They have very complex genomes. They. Can build beautiful skeletons, here you have some coke a little force. This. Is always one seller okay this. Is one cell building it through the cell is living inside and is building up these little plates and assembling, them outside the cell you. Can see how these cells are powerful, this. Is actually one of these cells building the plate inside the inside, some vesicle and extruding, the plates. This cell is the most calcifying, organisms on, earth you, can see how it's El. Cobre the black sea here in. Some some time of the year and. These. Cells so first this cell you know is at the same time a plant on an animal you can eat you. Can photosynthesize you. Can build this marvelous, you know nanotechnology, pieces and transform. The earth system as, you can see from the geological. Record. The. Shook of you, know a firm of. Dover, here is, at a hundred percent co-creator for most so. They had an impact major, impact probably stronger than than the one we had actually today. So. The protests are a new, world that we that. Is now coming into the game of global ecology and. Now, that we what you try also to do a lot is to assemble, all this complex data so we have different layers of data we have ecological. Data gene, we, have genomes genes, Organists. And, satellite data as well so we have different new heterogeneous, complex data that, you try to put together with, graph. Based. Method, and. So. We did this paper we build up the first global, plant on interactome and what, we saw is that biotic. Interactions are, more important than a biotic interactions and. That. You, know there are much more tax. On tax on interaction, in this network rather. Than tax on environmental, parameters and. That, cooperation positive. Relation are more. And more are much more important than exclusive. Relation, which, is kind of a nice lesson I think of life and. Now, you can analyze this is, it's. Going, to take years you know to understand, really what, functions, are in our driving this is Network this big ecological, Network what. We have found for instance is that in, fact parasites. Are incredibly, abundant but, nice parasites, you know these parasites try not to kill the host. Because they need the host so, positive seems to be a big driver of the of the stability of the of the network in fact we know assuming, that you know we don't have enough parasites, probably now that there, is a medicine that thing that we should get back our or parasites to, be healthier, we.

Also, Start to. To. Basically use, this that network, and. To. To because. This network is really the, ecology of a complex system plantain, now, we try also to to. Mix it to other complex systems like biogenic. Biotech in biogeochemical. Cycles, like the carbon pump which is a very, important, fundamental mechanism, of the biosphere or, climate. You, know processes, so, in this paper we we try to extract the most important component of the network which. Are not often the most abundant, often, they are the most connected you know other to. Fundamental. Process of the carbon flux that we measured with this instrument I show you before, the uvd the, underwater video profiler, and. We found, that specific, plant and communities correlate with Gabon export, in. Particular with or hajj alarians dinoflagellates, and cynical coke use very important different, species and, we. Can predict actually the, carbon export with which, part of these networks at a very high accuracy. So. Now where, are we I, think. We. Are we didn't have the job I think I think, we. We. Had about because we sample you know two hundred and twenty sites. Three. Depth and. So. We have about I, think six hundred you know ecosystem. In this global body of the ocean but, the ocean is super complex it's, super dynamic you. Have a lot, of connection you this you know you have this big gyre who have like, three hundred kilometres large, and you take them three years to cross, the Atlantic, and, so, we need of course two more, expedition. And. We need to expand the approach we haven't are on, very, you know very clever. Temporal. And spatial, skills so. I'm I told you about so now we have a new project today which is called to see. Tyonne. Systems ecology, and evolution where. We try to this is the, date I just showed you this, is what I call now this symbol, made. Of bacteria. Protists. And animals media bodies shapes. And meta behavior. And, we. Need to. -. We have a new new project basically as to to expand the approach we have done over, you know a finer of different. Spatial temporal scales that will allow. Us to understand, the system. One. One. Very, important aspect, is there. Is an incredible, incredibly. Good platform to develop you, know new protocols, and to do very very actually. Hardcore science but. There is also between ten and fifteen thousand selling boat you. Know at any time in the ocean crossing, the ocean, and we. We started to transfer, you know as part of the best, protocol, we have done to. These sailors, which. We call now the plank two nodes in this plankton planet project. We. Have basically extracted, a little. Protocol to collect plankton very easily and, -. And. A little kit that allows them to to. Get a little plantain and send. Us through the through, the actually. Earn they. Dry the plankton and they send us just Galit of plantain. To. The lab directly and we could show. Which. Was just the test phases you know a case study but. It was actually quite was, super easy to find enough sellers I mean we had too many people that we wanted to participate, we, had 25 crews, who. Sailed the planet in one year and, we could collect data. From. All these dots, here this ratio here. Is a number of sample. Of different boats collecting collecting plankton. And. We got all this data and we sequence it for, bar coding for DNA barcode and here you can see in red the number. Of new plant and genus that we never found in town in this big data set I showed you okay showing. That in fact we are we are reaching saturation but, there is a lot to discover and if, we want to reach very fine, you know granularity. We. Need this this, boat to help because, there is no automated, way yet of something, the complexity. Of the ocean the. Last point I wanted to say is. That we we need to develop imaging, and we have developed a fantastic. Approach. To to, automatically, image, thanks to la custodia to, come back to the beginning of my talk we. Developed these new methods and in this method that was used in human, biology to, do.

Automatic, You know 3d, high. Resolution. Imaging. Confocal, of all. These cells that I showed you and. It's beautiful because you can really scan, the self through its three, dimensions. Either the, chloroplast a nucleus, a shape the. Membrane. Systems. You. Can then print the cells okay, which, is beautiful because you can show them UK this is plantain for blind people, you. Can really show them it's very important this cell you know it's one of the most abundant on the planet Earth right so, it's so cool to have it in your hand and actually I will give you you. Can pass it if you want. And. Now we need to and. Also you can see all these symbiosis, that this cells are made of all these cells are congregates, are. Little ecosystems they're like oh systems within the ecosystems. So. We can study the here you can see some, some. Cyanobacteria, which other cells, that gave the chloroplasts which are, you know living in symbiosis with with some of these organisms. So. We can start on to understand fundamental, process of evolution ELISA so this system the, dream is is. This. Is. To really understand the rules of. Evolution. Functioning. Ecology, of. One. Biome, on earth and. Basically to understand how different modules we have their, stability their resilience if. We don't understand this we will never be, able to predict you know accurately. Climate or the future of our, you, know Earth's, human body. Would totally, depend on the on the on the biosphere and there there is this guy at MIT MIT follow that does some beautiful, you know modeling. Including. Physics and chemistry of the of the whole of the world he's. Really a genius anon but, the problem is telling here there is no database we have the models everything is working we just need, to. Include the complexity, of life, so. I think it's maybe another 15 20 years on and. We will be there. Since. Fifty. Years we know that we. Have to understand this one this is really, because. I mean it stronger than us you know the dynamics of the of. The. Earth's community, will, we, will. Hit the dynamics of the earth system I need to the earth system is much stronger than we are that's, for sure so. We have to learn how to live in symbiosis with, mrs.. Earth. Which. Contain art actually so. I want to find a very much this little this, was really a first. Very emotional picture about the beginning of the Cruz who. Is a class on T of course Ramon you. Have also his. Bowler Etienne bagua we we, used to be the owner of the her now it's belong to the foundation and myself. And, well it. Was really the little first, new clues and. Thank. You very much to you all for your time. Thanks. Very much guys as a really. Interesting talk, it's. Amazing, information the amazing visuals amazing we're, going to open up the floor for some some, questions from Google this is a couple. Of mics up the back there if you have, any questions, you'd like to go up and. I. Have a I have a food on. Board yes, yeah. I. Might, open it up with the. First question I. Mean. Just when I see those the. Imagery of all that you know amazing kind. Of sea. Life at the for of you know all, these different kind, of colors. And things, it's incredible, and then I see the imagery of all the coral bleaching and it's just really. Really impactful. What's. Your. Opinion can. Can. Me as a person, and me. As a Googler do, to help with. Your cause, what. You could do yeah. There. Is very simple things to do I think the, problem with the ecology that be since, decades. We tell people that we have no time it's, too late well. The. Fate is over over, or we, have a. And. I maintain that we really, lose, a lot of people who don't want to see if there is no time to do something you better not want to see it because otherwise. You you, you you panic that's. That's really the panic and. I believe that the, the change we need in the society, as a wall is. To change behavior, and this will take generations that. I believe. Okay. We have a lot of stress on the planet now a lot of you, can see the stress on the ecosystems, I believe. We have the time to think, ahead as, long as we plan, as. Long as we know what to do as long as we do science to understand this planet I believe. That we have time to change in. The future. Generation. What. You buy every day when, you buy something you have the huge. Power on the future, economy, the. Way you buy things good. Things bad, things healthy. Things bad. For environment.

But For the for the pollution really. A choice is very important, you second thing you can do very cheap it's free actually if, you are kids you tell the kids you try to put. Them some consciousness, about all these not the details of course but. This. Planet is is is, our land it's our it's our home how, can we do things better in, the future this. Is easy and this, is like also a trigger. Trigger, for questioning. A trigger, for for. Innovating. Changing. The way we did before change, this week for the what we do and do it tomorrow and. Of. Course the, third thing you can do is is. For, when you vote I don't. Ask you to vote for ecological ecologist. But, keeping keeping, in mind is what, they are what they have to say on the ecology of. Course. Not what's always phycologist are not really ecologist, and but. Keep. In mind what they propose, on this aspect, this. Is the way we're, going to change slowly do the trajectory and I. Think this is if. The ocean is very resilient, the, fifth and yeah the fifth and very important thing as Google. Engineer, you. Can help us basically, we. Have layers, of complexity. News data. We. Have genomes. Express, genes organize. Images then, you have a satellite images or so that you can connect so there is a lot of it's big data so. Our dream is to have a Google. Traffic. Google ocean platform or something in giant networks. Yeah. We. Really would do it actually we're unable us to do that because, we are too few, people and. So if you. If you yeah you can, help us to do that and also too so, there is big a big data you know exploring. The big data first. And then, there is inter, the artificial, intelligence for for you know teaching the first. Of the satellite to recognize a gene diversity, or some you know you can imagine a lot of things and I think this is a very good. Use of artificial. Intelligence for you know for global ecology probably. The maybe, the best use of artificial intelligence and you work really hard you may have the chance to say on board well, really hard so we need you. Another. Question but, maybe. Hi over, here on your own you're right mark yes, yeah, thank you this is really fascinating and it seems like you're you know straddling, lots of worlds sailing, and science I, want, to ask about generally. How you're, being supported, it sounds like you have some privates support, from companies, and individuals but also public support, the. French government especially seems very interested, to follow your work could, you speak a little bit about especially. How governments, are helping you and and, what they're doing to help you oh it's, a real ecosystem, as. Well. We have donators, like you and I giving, $10 a day. Sometime, per month or whatever we, are big donors we have cooperates. Foundations. For, French corporate Swedish, American, and Japanese, sofa, corporations, who, contribute. To in sponsorship, they don't have any clue what we do and, have any any rights and what we collect it's really sponsorship, for knowledge, we. Also work with creativity's. Cities. Like LA you know Brittany. In. France we are pretty well. Supported. By the by the states, another. The last ten. Years since we are with Colombo working on this project. Carano, is working at the scene analysis of its a state laboratory. And. Like. A post here you know I am that composed like, yeah. This. Is the beauty, of the cellular system it's super, stable so we have a few people. Totally, fascinated, by this project in the saneras in the French state. Supporting. This part you know they put already twenty million dollars in. The in the research with. The control harm is or many many many. Different aspects but we know we're always need more and we always change the way we do science before, so, this is innovation, innovation, is risky and sometimes. It is hard to get the funding for for risky innovations, the, sense I think the beginning of this started, because we. Were a few people with totally stable work you know I cannot, be fired. From my. Even. If I don't work, and. I and. Also there were people like me and. Then, and then the private. Company you know an eighteen, bagua and I yes be who was reporting so this mix between hyper. Stability, and and. You. Know private from the founders. Make, this actually. Starts start we, it would have been very hard, to start this you. Know with classical, academic. Leadership. First the, French state to the leadership at the cop21 on, climate, we. Did a lot we. Invest first invested a lot in diplomacy Amanda, and. What we do now mr. is what to also, teach that ok the plant we can do climate we barely understand it. What's. Gonna be the fate of the ocean how this will be a reaction what we do will be the future and, this is next step of the cop21 is really to better, understand, this ecosystem in, 2013, when we came back we go, to a French and this is not a venir.

Funding. Which. Allowed us to organize, to produce most, of the data and organize. Attorney. Was here with us today because, we. Are doing now working now is artificial. Intelligence, which. Have so much data that we need that to, dig. Into it. And this, is the beginning of a new story and I hope that Google will. Be with us on that at, some stage. Alright, guys thanks, very much I'm afraid we're we're. Out of time yeah again. Big round of applause. You.

2017-12-21 20:36

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