Байкал: Бездонный "колодец" планеты Земля | Интересные факты про озеро Байкал
Hello everyone, you are on the planet Earth channel. And today we will talk about Baikal. Baikal is a creation of unique beauty. Unique means special, unique, unrepeatable. Baikal is a land of such unprecedented, fabulously magical beauty, and this is what makes it especially valuable for humanity. It is rightfully called one of the wonders of the world, a precious gift of
nature, a museum of antiquities, the sacred Siberian sea. Baikal lives a mysterious, deep inner life, its innermost essence is hidden behind seven seals. He is reluctant to part with age-old secrets, does not succumb to the forays of scientists, writers, artists, poets. New knowledge is brought to the golden fund of Baikal studies bit by bit. Life is not enough to know the nature of Lake Baikal in detail, so dear friends, we will look at the big picture and who will be interested will definitely consider it more carefully, let's go. "Baikal" is a Turkic word, comes from Bay-Kul, which means "rich lake". Some authors believe that this
word comes from the Mongolian Baigal - "rich fire" or Baigal-Dalai - "big lake" (sea). But these hypotheses are scientifically insufficiently substantiated and have not received wide recognition. The peoples living in the Baikal region, probably, each named the lake in its own way: the Evenks called it Lamu, that is, "the sea", and the Buryats Baigal-Nuur - "Lake Baikal". But these are rather translations into their own language of an already existing name. The literature also contains the name Dalai-Nur, also allegedly referring to Lake Baikal. But there are lakes with this name - Dalai-Nur in Northern
Mongolia and Dalai-Nor in China, and in fact it can refer to any large lake. In general, this issue has not yet been finally resolved and is awaiting its researchers. And the fact that Baikal is often called the sea for its violent temper and for the fact that the distant opposite shore is often hidden somewhere in the haze is true. So if in the course of the story I say the sea, respected geographers and excellent geographers, do not swear. At the same time, the Small and Big Sea are distinguished . The Small Sea is what is located between the northern coast of Olkhon and the mainland,
and everything else is the Big Sea. Baikal is located almost in the center of Asia between the latitudes of Moscow and Voronezh, London and Edinburgh. Its length is 636 kilometers, the greatest width is 79 kilometers, the smallest is 25 kilometers. In terms of the area of the water surface - 31,500 square kilometers - it is equal to such European states as Belgium. This is the deepest lake on our planet. The current value of the maximum depth of
Lake Baikal - 1642 m - was established in 1983 by a group of Soviet scientists. It should be noted that in many reference books the value of the maximum depth appears - 1620 m, which was recorded in the 60s when measuring with a cable lot in the area of the Khara-Khushun and Izhemey capes, at a distance of 12 km from the eastern coast of Olkhon Island. The average depth of the lake is also very high - 744.4 m. The maximum depth of Tanganyika is 1435 meters, Issyk-Kul - 702. There are only eight lakes on Earth that are more than 500 meters deep. This determines the
enormous amount of water reserves in Lake Baikal. Its volume is 23.6 thousand cubic kilometers, which is about 20% of the planet's fresh lake waters - all fresh lakes in the world contain 123 thousand cubic kilometers of water. In order to imagine the entire immensity of the lake's water body, we recall that the Angara River, annually carrying 60 cubic kilometers of water, needs 387 years of continuous work to drain its bowl, provided, of course, that during this time not water drops. The Baikal basin can hold all the
water of the Baltic Sea, and to fill it with water it would take a whole year to collect the runoff of all the rivers of the globe. The lake lies in the Baikal depression - a bottomless stone bowl surrounded on all sides by mountains. The depth of the depression is determined by the height of the mountains above it, the depth of the lake and the thickness of the loose sediments lining it. The layer of these lake sediments in places reaches 6,000 meters, and their volume is twice the volume of the lake. Knowing the thickness of this layer, it is easy to calculate that the depth of the crystalline bed of Lake Baikal is at least 9000 meters, that is, the deepest point of the Baikal root bath lies about 7000 meters below sea level. The stone cradle of the lake is the deepest basin on earth's land. The water level of Lake Baikal is 455 meters higher than the ocean level. The coastline stretches for 2,100
kilometers, and the territory from which the waters are collected exceeds 550 thousand square kilometers, the whole of France would fit on it. 336 rivers and streams flow into Baikal. The largest of them are Selenga, Verkhnyaya Angara, Barguzin, Turka, Snezhnaya. About half of the water received by Lake Baikal comes from the Selenga River. Only one mighty and swift Angara flows out of the lake, giving its transparent waters to the Yenisei. The place where the Angara and Yenisei merge is 378 meters below the level of Lake Baikal. The Baikal depression is enclosed between two high mountain arcs that frame it from the northwest and southeast. These are grandiose mountain ranges with a harsh landscape of slopes and treeless
peaks. The ridges stretch along the shores of the lake, and to the north they join the vast highlands. In some places, especially at the confluence of large rivers, flat areas are traced, and on the banks there are shallow lagoons (sors) or wide deltas. In the east, Baikal forms two large bays - Chivyrkuisky and Barguzinsky - with picturesque shores and beautiful sandy beaches.
Baikal has a softening effect on the climate of the coast. In winter it is 5-7 degrees warmer, and in summer it is cooler than in remote areas. In summer, the water masses of the lake warm up to a depth of 250 meters and, like an accumulator, accumulate a huge amount of heat. Therefore, despite the harsh Siberian winters, Baikal does not freeze for a long time. Only in January, when there are the most severe frosts in Siberia , is it frozen in ice. By March, the ice thickness reaches one meter. And the ice on Lake Baikal is unique in its own way. He presents scientists with many mysteries. Thus, the
specialists of the Baikal Limnological Station discovered unusual forms of ice cover, characteristic only for Baikal. For example, "hills" are cone-shaped ice hills up to 6 m high, hollow inside. Outwardly, they resemble ice tents, "open" to the opposite side from the coast. Hills can be located separately, and sometimes form miniature "mountain
ranges". There are also several types of ice on Lake Baikal: "sokuy", "Kolobovnik", "osenets". In severe frost, the cracks, locally called “back cracks,” break the ice into separate fields. The length of such cracks is 10-30 km, and the width is 2-3 m. Breaks occur annually in approximately the same areas of the lake. They are accompanied by a loud crash, reminiscent of thunder or cannon shots. It seems to a person standing on the ice that the ice cover is bursting just under his feet and he will now fall into the abyss. Thanks to cracks in the ice, fish on the lake do not die from lack of oxygen. Baikal ice, in addition, is very transparent,
and the sun's rays penetrate through it, therefore planktonic algae, which release oxygen , develop rapidly in the water . Along the shores of Lake Baikal, one can observe ice grottos and splashes in winter. The southern part of Lake Baikal is freed from the ice cover in May, the northern part - in the first ten days of June, but individual ice floes and entire ice fields float across Lake Baikal for a long time until the end of June and even until mid-July. The water in Lake Baikal is cold. The temperature of the surface layers, even in summer, does not exceed + 9 ° C,
in some bays - + 15 ° C. The temperature of the deep layers is about + 4 ° C .. Only in the Small Sea, in the estuarine areas of large tributaries, as well as in large bays - Barguzinsky, Chivyrkuisky - and in shallow bays, the water temperature sometimes reaches 20 degrees in August. As a result of sharp temperature differences in the air over the lake and over the surrounding coastal areas, there are often sudden changes in atmospheric pressure, accompanied by strong winds from the lake to the shores, then from the shores to the lake. The winds of the western and north-western directions prevail on Lake Baikal . In the area of the Small Sea, such a wind is called "sarma". Here he is particularly fierce and reaches a speed of over 40 meters per second. The "sarma" played out sometimes tears off roofs from houses, blows out light soils from under the roots of age-old trees on the coast, heaves high waves on the water surface, which destroy rafts with forests and cause severe ship accidents. The raging surf can be heard far away in the coastal taiga. Besides sarma,
Baikal quite often experiences other winds: verkhovik, angara, the famous barguzin, shelonnik, kultuk and local valley winds. Where there is wind, there are waves, as you know. We note right away that the opposite is not true - the wave can be even with complete calm. Waves on Lake Baikal can reach a height of 4 meters. Sometimes values of 5 and even 6 meters are given, but this is most likely an estimate "by eye". The height of 4 meters was obtained using instrumental measurements. The excitement is most intense in autumn and spring. In summer on Lake Baikal strong excitement is rare and calm often occurs. As in any sea, there are islands on Lake Baikal and there are many of them. Moreover, the exact number has
not yet come to a common denominator. Because some of the islands of Lake Baikal are rocks. The largest of them is about. Olkhon, which has a length of 71.7 km, a maximum width of 14 km and an area of 700 km2. Olkhon is a land area left above water as a result of tectonic movements. Most of the island is occupied by a mountain range with gentle northwestern slopes and steep, precipitous southeastern slopes with a maximum height of 1274 m in the area of Cape Izhimei. The largest number of islands is concentrated in the Maloye More area. The most interesting of them are Ogoy, on which the Buddhist Stupa of Enlightenment is installed, Zamogoy, where, according to legend, lepers were brought and left there, Big Toinak, which looks like a giant crocodile, and Small Toinak (from the Buryat "toyog" - "kneecap"), the island of Khubyn with a huge bird colony, the island of Kharantsy, Sharga-Dogan, Borga-Dogan, Oltrek, Edor and Modote.
Five islands are located in the Chivyrkuisky Bay. These are Big Koltygey or Shaggy, Small Koltygey (Naked), Pokoinitsky Kamen, White Stone Island and Bolshoy Baklaniy. In the very center of Lake Baikal there is a ridge of the Ushkany Islands. This is the island of Bolshoi Ushkaniy, the islands Dolgiy, Krugly and Tonkiy. The largest rookeries of the Baikal seal are located on these islands.
Lake Baikal also has a nose and not just a snub-nosed nose or a snout, but Svyatoy Nose is the only peninsula on the sacred lake. Its length is 53 km, width is up to 20 km, area is 596 km2. The peninsula is a continuation of the Barguzinsky ridge and rises 1000 m above the level of Lake Baikal. As in any sea, but we know that this is a lake, there are currents in Baikal. The current speed is only a few centimeters per second, it depends on many factors and decreases with distance from the coast and with depth. The surface current near the western coast of Lake Baikal is almost always directed from north to south, and near the east - from south to north. In other words, on the whole, the current along the Baikal coast is directed counterclockwise. There is a
current along the coast of Olkhon Island. In the Olkhonskiye Vorota Strait and near the western coast of the Small Sea, the current is so strong that in calm weather the drift of the vessel is clearly visible. Horizontal currents in the upper layers of water contribute to intensive mixing of the surface water masses of the lake, enriching them with oxygen. The waters of Lake Baikal are distinguished by their extraordinary transparency and purity. The Secchi white disc, used to determine the transparency of the waters of lakes, seas and oceans, is visible in Baikal in spring at a depth of up to 40 meters (for comparison, in the Sargasso Sea, which is considered the standard for the transparency of ocean waters, this value is 65 m). The glorified Alpine lakes are also significantly inferior to Lake Baikal in terms of
water transparency . Later, when a massive algae bloom begins, the transparency of the water decreases, but in calm weather, the bottom is visible from the boat at a fairly decent depth. Such high transparency is explained by the fact that Baikal water, due to the activity of living organisms inhabiting it, is very weakly mineralized and close to distilled. The clean fresh water of Lake Baikal is a valuable natural treasure. It is the largest repository of clean water in the entire globe. The specific qualities of Baikal water are a
consequence of various processes in the lake basin, the circulation of matter and energy in the reservoir itself. Another feature of Lake Baikal is its antiquity. From what time, from what geological period in the history of the Earth does the Glorious Sea lead its chronology? Most researchers determine its age at 20-30 million years! This may seem implausible, because the vast majority of lakes, especially of glacial origin, live only 10-15 thousand years, then fill with sediments and sooner or later first turn into swamps, and then dry up altogether. There are no signs of "aging" on Lake Baikal. On the contrary, recent studies have made it possible
to hypothesize that Baikal is an emerging ocean! This is confirmed by the fact that its shores diverge at a rate of up to 2 cm per year, just as the continents of Africa and South America diverge . Approximately the same speeds of movement of large masses of the earth's crust give reason to think about the commonality of the reasons that cause them. In addition, along with active movements of the earth's crust, significant magnetic anomalies were noted along the axis of the lake. These anomalies are comparable in scale to the same anomalies in the mid-Atlantic fault area.
Baikal is one of the oldest and, apparently, the most reliable long-livers among the lakes of the whole world. Knowing the rate of accumulation of sediments at its bottom - about 4 centimeters per millennium, one can hope that Baikal will live for tens of millions of years. The formation of the basin has not yet ended, the movements of the earth's crust have not stopped. Baikal is alive and therefore earthquakes of great strength are frequent here . During one of them, in January 1862, a section of the coast
with an area of over 200 square kilometers in the northern part of the delta of the Selenga River sank under water. In its place, the Proval Bay, up to 10 meters deep, was formed. According to modern estimates, the earthquake had a magnitude of 7.5 and reached at least 10 points at the epicenter, covering an area of almost 2 million square meters. km. The impacts that damaged buildings were observed 600 kilometers or more from the
epicenter, and large rock falls were recorded at a distance of up to 400 kilometers. In 1959, as a result of an earthquake in the middle part of the lake, the bottom of the lake sank by more than 15 meters. Every year in the Baikal region, seismic stations register up to 2 thousand earthquakes of various strengths. Horror caught up with moving on flora and fauna. For a long period of its existence, Baikal with the world of organisms inhabiting it has gone through a very complex and eventful history.
As a result, in the modern fauna and flora of the lake, there are both ancient (relict) forms and forms that arose later in Baikal itself. More than 2600 species and varieties of animals and more than 1000 species of plant organisms are found in Lake Baikal . There is reason to believe that at present only 70-80% of the species of living organisms inhabiting the waters of Lake Baikal are known to science. About 40% of the plants and about 85% of the animal species living in the lake are endemic, i.e. found only here.
Living organisms in Lake Baikal are distributed from the surface to the maximum depths. There are about 60 species of fish in the lake. The most famous are omul, whitefish, grayling, taimen, sturgeon, lenok and pike. The most interesting in Lake Baikal is the viviparous fish golomyanka, whose body contains up to 30% fat. It surprises biologists with daily forage migrations from the depths to shallow waters. Baikal is unique among lakes in that freshwater sponges grow here at great depths. The coast is home to about 2000 plant species and more than 200 bird species nest.
The lake contains a unique, typically marine mammal - the Baikal seal. It is assumed that it entered Baikal from the Arctic Ocean during the ice age along the Yenisei and Angara. Currently, there are tens of thousands of seals. In summer, they can be seen quite often in the central part of the lake. Epishura crustacean - endemic to Lake Baikal - makes up to 80% of the lake's zooplankton biomass and is the most important link in the food chain of the reservoir. It acts as a filter: it passes water through itself, purifying it. But not a single crustacean will filter out
human activities that are harmful to the lake. Chemical pollutants enter Lake Baikal from the waters of the Selenga rivers and other tributaries. There are other environmental problems of Lake Baikal, for example, poaching, illegal logging, discharge of untreated wastewater by enterprises, settlements and water transport, household waste, as well as unorganized tourism. Ballast water discharges from ships and pollution of lake waters with oil products are a particular problem . Если 100 лет назад на озере Байкал было всего 15 паровых кораблей, то в последнее время количество судов превышает 300, а количество моторных лодок составляет около 8000. Все они являются источником загрязнения озера Байкал нефтепродуктами, а суда дополнительно загрязняют озеро фекалиями.
Существенным источником загрязнений озера является туризм, особенно так называемый дикий туризм. Ежегодно Байкал посещают от 1,5 до 2 млн. туристов, в результате деятельности которых в озеро попадает 780 000 тонн мусора. Из поселений и промышленных предприятий, расположенных вдоль берега Байкала, в озеро ежегодно поступает более 60 миллионов тонн сточных вод. В бассейне озера расположены крупные промышленные центры: города Улан-Батор, Улан-Удэ, Гусиноозёрск, многие горно-обогатительные комплексы Монголии и Бурятии. В сознании людей Байкал стал символом кристальной нравственной чистоты, правды, справедливости, свободной доли и высоких стремлений. Поэтому народ и называет озеро Славным морем и Священным Байкалом. Байкал - великий
памятник природы. И нет равного на нашей планете этому далекому озеру среди диких горных хребтов и глухой медвежьей тайги. Байкал хранит много тайн, много загадочного, интересного, и люди, пытаясь проникнуть в мир озера каждый раз открывают для себя что-то новое. Байкал — это бесценный дар природы, которым нужно разумно пользоваться и всеми силами оберегать. Смотрим слушаем записываем, подписываемся. Не забываем ставить лайки и делиться этим видео с друзьями, это очень помогает продвижению. С вами был канал планета земля.