Aerial Britain: Series 1 (2019) - Documentary
Narrator: Southern England. Heartland of an empire forged from empires... Where 3,000 years of history Rub shoulders with a little eccentricity. Meet defiant rebels from the 1960s Who refuse to act their age...
And where a leap of faith can fulfill your dreams. Soar above a land where heroes are born And classic fiction becomes real. From the soaring cliffs where a mythical king emerged To a shining city Where a king's ransom is a pittance... Where all the world's a stage. And every wall a blank canvas...
To a place where a genius for invention Spans centuries... And trains depart from dry land, Then disappear beneath the sea. This is southern England as you've never seen it before. The idyllic rolling fields Of the cotswolds in southern England, Where the peace of early morning is interrupted By the passage of an unusual convoy.
You may recall the film "the italian job." You may know the modern equivalent of these cars Are produced by a german manufacturer. But for steve priest, His mum sue, And best mate neil alcock, There's nothing more english than a classic austin mini. In the 1969 heist movie starring michael caine, A band of gold thieves Make their escape in three mini coopers, Each one representing a color of the union jack-- Red, white, and blue. The movie would confer the little racers With legendary status. The brainchild of automotive engineer sir alec issigonis, The mini would revolutionize how small cars were made.
Voted the most influential car of the twentieth century, Nearly five million rolled off the assembly lines Between 1959 and 2000, Many of which are still on the road today. Steve's enduring love of all things mini Led to a sideline business hiring out wedding cars-- An unlikely contrast to his day job At the ministry of defense. There's something quintessentially english About that. Then again, this is southern England, Which, some say, Is about as quintessential as englishness gets.
For 2,000 years, The town of dover on the south coast Has been the gateway to britain. Today it's one of the world's busiest passenger ports. Back in 43 a.D.,
When the roman emperor claudius Sent his galleys to invade britain, This was their first sight of land-- The white cliffs of dover. Here the romans faced A seemingly impregnable natural defense-- A great sea wall rising 350 feet, Dominating the southern coast of kent. Rather than storm it, they avoided it, Establishing a beachhead 14 miles to the north. And so began 400 years of colonization. By the end of the second century, Roman britain was divided into two provinces, North and south. In the south, on a crossing point of the river thames, They built their largest and most important city, Londinium...
Known since the middle ages as london. London has been the centerpiece of empire, And for 100 years until 1925, The world's largest city. Spread out over 600 square miles, The city is home to 8.7 million people Speaking 300 languages. After 2,000 years, It remains one of the wealthiest And most culturally diverse capitals on the planet.
The river thames has been central to london's economy Since the time of the romans. In the 19th century, These tidal waters framed the busiest port in the world. Lovingly if harshly dubbed "dirty old river" By ray davies of the kinks, The thames has been the muse of dickens and conrad, Immortalized in the paintings of turner, whistler, and monet. The days of the great river port may be over, But the thames is still a busy thoroughfare...
And a place where london's famed entrepreneurial spirit lives on. In 2014, phillip otto, originally from south africa, Set up thames limos-- A luxury charter boat service for clients With a thousand dollars an hour to spend And no time to waste. Out here on the river, Phillip provides many celebrity clients With a welcome break From the prying lenses of the paparazzi. With its distinctive union jack livery, Phillip's boat is similar in design To that of the famous hand-crafted water taxis Of venice. With celebrity clients including taylor swift and justin bieber, Phillip remains the limo driver of choice To the rich and famous. Some celebrities consider tower bridge To be the capital's most iconic landmark...
But londoners have their own favorite. At times of national celebration, This is where londoners come together. Trafalgar square-- Overshadowed by a 170-foot memorial To one of England's greatest naval heroes, Admiral horatio nelson. Named after the great sea battle of 1805 Where nelson defeated napoleon's navy, Trafalgar square could have lost its centerpiece If history had taken a different course. Documents uncovered in germany after world war ii Show that, if hitler had triumphed over britain, He planned to take the statue as a trophy, Relocating it to berlin. It's 11 a.M.,
And crowds have gathered outside buckingham palace For the famous changing of the guard, A handover of security duties That has taken place almost every day since 1660. The queen's household division Includes soldiers from seven elite infantry regiments. Their primary duty is to protect the royal family. Since 1838, There have been only 12 unauthorized entries To the palace. The most famous, in 1982, Saw londoner michael fagan Access the bedroom where the queen was sleeping Before he was arrested for trespass.
The law has since been changed, Making such intrusions a criminal offense. Perhaps the most notorious unwanted intrusion In english history Took place more than 400 years ago At the palace of westminster, the seat of british government. Here, in 1605, A band of catholic rebels hatched an elaborate plan To assassinate the protestant king james I.
In passageways running beneath the building, They hid 36 barrels of gunpowder-- Enough to level the palace and kill everyone inside. The plan was eventually discovered, And the king escaped. But the rebel leader, guy fawkes, And his fellow conspirators Met a grisly fate-- Every one of them hung, drawn, and quartered. Every year on guy fawkes night, November 5th, England commemorates the foiling of the gunpowder plot. Naturally, celebrations include the setting off of fireworks. Anyone familiar with westminster Will notice that something's amiss.
The 315-foot elizabeth tower Housing the great iron bell known as big ben... One of london's most iconic landmarks Currently wrapped in scaffolding. Weighing almost 14 tons, The peals of big ben have marked the hour for 150 years. Perhaps the most identifiable sound in london. Today, with the tower in the midst Of a maintenance program due for completion in 2021, Big ben's victorian mechanism Has been disconnected from the clock face.
Though londoners can still see the time, The familiar chimes are, for now, silenced. Behind the houses of parliament Stand the imposing gothic towers of westminster abbey. Since the middle ages, It has seen the coronation of nearly every british monarch, Including william the conqueror. Arriving from France in 1066, William's forces marched on london.
Here at westminster abbey on christmas day, He was crowned king of England. The new king would stamp his authority on the capital With a great symbol of his power, The tower of london. Constructed on the original roman site of londinium, The tower's fearsome reputation would endure for centuries. In its time, it has been a fortress, A place of execution, A royal mint, And a high-security jail. Since the 13th century, It's also been the country's most prestigious vault, Guarding the crown jewels, Estimated to be worth at least $4 billion. One of london's greatest treasures Is the creativity that continues to emerge from its streets.
But in a city of eight million people, Those streets can get a little crowded. Skate parks like this one in the east of the city Offer freedom and the space to express it. Shajee shazad has been a skateboarder Since he was nine years old. He loves the lifestyle, the technical challenge, And the connection it offers. When he's not skating, He produces video content for social media, Filming his fellow skaters all over london.
In a sport that's all about Individuality and self-expression, Anything goes. No formality, No dress code, No rules to follow. Elsewhere, there's an entirely different kind of energy Driving this city forward. London is the world's leading financial center, Surpassing both new york and hong kong. It generates $600 billion every year, Roughly 30% of the entire british economy.
And most of that business Takes place in this famous quarter. Known as "the city" or "the square mile," It contains london's historic center And primary business district. The square mile trades more u.S. Dollars every year Than new york. The foreign exchange market alone Has a daily global turnover of nearly $3 trillion. Some of its most distinctive features Are the skyscrapers that rise from its historic streets, Most of which have been nicknamed by londoners.
The leadenhall building, Aka "the cheese grater"... 20 fenchurch street, Otherwise known as "the walkie talkie"... And 30 st mary axe... "the gherkin."
Designed by the renowned british architect lord norman foster, The gherkin was constructed using 22 miles of steel And 260,000 square feet of external glass. Even at a mere 591 feet, The tower attracted controversy during its construction, With local businesses concerned at the shadow it would cast. Completed in 2003, It was london's second tallest building. Today it's the tenth tallest.
But in the hearts of many londoners, It will always be number one. Southwest of central london, The all England lawn tennis and croquet club, Also known as wimbledon, Venue of the oldest and most prestigious tennis tournament In the world. Every summer it holds one of the four grand slam tournaments And the only one still played entirely on grass. With the main event just a week away, All access, especially to the famous center court, Is forbidden, Except for the groundskeepers who maintain it. Watering the courts is a precise art, Maintaining a fine balance Between the greenness of the ryegrass court And the firmness of the soil beneath.
Every day during the tournament, Ground staff measure the consistency Of the playing surface To minimize wear And ensure a consistent ball speed. Some say tennis is the most quintessentially english Of all sports. Others disagree. Cricket, as the late comedian robin williams once said, "is basically baseball on valium."
But for fast bowler sam harris, It's a serious business. He is cricket's equivalent to a baseball pitcher. Opening the attack for exeter university, He launches a six-ounce stitched leather ball At over 90 miles per hour Towards the opposing batsman, Straining every sinew to bowl him out.
This game has a genuine connection To one of america's favorite sports. The devon town of exeter was the birthplace Of sportswriter henry chadwick of brooklyn-- A 19th-century immigrant to america, Once known as the father of baseball. As well as working tirelessly To promote the sport in its early days, Chadwick would create baseball's All-important statistical summary-- The box score-- Adapting it from the cricket scorecard. Extending like a two-pronged fork Into the celtic sea, The peninsula of cornwall is as far west as England goes...
Which is why land's end at cornwall's western tip Is known as the first and last of England. Like the welsh and scottish, The cornish people are a distinct celtic nation With their own language And an enviable home In one of britain's most evocative coastal landscapes. Cornwall is a place where many great stories begin, Including that of England's most legendary king.
Here, perched on a dramatic headland in north cornwall, Is the ancient ruin of tintagel castle. This, according to the medieval historian geoffrey of monmouth, Was where uther pendragon and lady igraine Conceived their son, arthur-- A boy who would one day become britain's greatest king. Mythical hero or historical figure, His story resonates to this day.
The legends of king arthur, Camelot, The chivalrous knights of the round table, The magical sword of excalibur, And the quest for the holy grail Are still written into the english landscape. Perhaps the most famous of those legends resides here. St. Michael's tower is all that remains of a 14th-century church Built at the summit of glastonbury tor in somerset. Known as the isle of avalon, This was the mythical realm where king arthur slept, Ready to return to his people in their hour of need.
The great cone-shaped hill Is one of England's most ancient spiritual sites-- First pagan, then later a place of christian worship. It was even said to contain the holy grail-- The cup used by jesus at the last supper. A sacred relic as central to arthurian legend As the king himself.
Somerset has another claim to fame. This county is the home of apple cider, And the english drink more of it than anyone else in the world. West bradley orchards is a family-run business-- 70 acres of apple trees Nestled in the countryside beneath glastonbury tor. September is harvest time. Playwright neil bebber and his partner emma prentice Come here every year to pick their own fruit. England's love of cider Dates back to the time of william the conqueror.
The normans planted thousands of orchards all over England. Indirectly, The fruit of those trees played an unexpected role At a pivotal time in american history. In 1620, when the mayflower sailed to the new world, A beam of the ship was badly damaged during a storm. The crew considered turning back, But the story goes That an iron screw from a cider press Was used as a brace, And the ship continued on. On arriving in the new world, The pilgrims planted the precious apple seeds They had brought with them.
They would grow into the first apple trees In the colonies of new England. Stratford-upon-avon-- The birthplace of England's greatest playwright, William shakespeare. Shakespeare's plays are so well known And his genius so universally accepted That inevitably conspiracy theories abound. One school of thought even disputes the fact That shakespeare was the author of great plays Like "king lear" and "hamlet." It questions How such a humble man with no formal education Could have written the great masterpieces That bear his name. Shakespeare was born and raised in this house on henley street In the center of stratford.
In 1585, he left to find his fortune in london. According to detractors, His plays were far too sophisticated To have been conceived by someone From a small provincial town. They also point to the fact That there are few accounts of shakespeare's life in london Or his funeral in 1616. Unusual for such a famous and talented man.
Shakespeare is buried here In the chancel of stratford's holy trinity church, Where he had been baptized 52 years before. Despite the conspiracy theories, Few serious historians doubt shakespeare's claim to fame. In the back garden of the house on henley street Is a small outdoor theatre Where students regularly perform the bard's greatest works. Right now, young actors jonathan youl and lorenna white Are rehearsing a production of "the taming of the shrew."
Since the first play he saw here in stratford as a child, Jonathan has always wanted to be an actor. Lorenna, Who asked for the complete works of shakespeare On her seventh birthday, Is also living a dream, Performing in the very garden Where the great writer once played as a child. Who knows? One day, both could even end up on stage At stratford-upon-avon's World-famous royal shakespeare theatre, Proving ground Of some of the world's greatest actors and directors.
Shakespeare's plays are so eminently quotable, They have even transcended the stage. Politicians, in particular, Have always been keen to sprinkle their oratory With the words of the bard. One esteemed english statesman, Sir winston churchill, Could recite whole tracts of shakespearean dialogue From memory.
Once home to the daughter of america's richest businessman... This was also the accidental birthplace Of England's most celebrated prime minister. Blenheim palace in oxfordshire Is the principal residence of the dukes of marlborough. It is one of England's largest homes-- A masterpiece of the early 18th-century baroque style.
In 1895, as its owners struggled with vast maintenance costs, Blenheim was saved from ruin When the 9th duke married the american railroad heiress Consuelo vanderbilt. A huge dowry given by the bride's parents, Alva and william vanderbilt-- The modern equivalent of $62 million-- Would save blenheim from ruin. 20 years earlier, The palace had witnessed another equally welcome But unexpected arrival. Accompanying her husband on a visit to his ancestral home, The heavily pregnant lady randolph churchill Suddenly went into labor. Their son, The future prime minister winston churchill, Was accidentally born here on the 30th of November 1874. Great estates like blenheim were once open plan.
Without fences, Fields literally stretched for miles, Until a 19th century act of parliament Made the building of boundary walls compulsory. Now the horses of wealthy fox hunting landowners Had obstacles to overcome. And in time, a national sport was born. Showjumping. And it's alice keen's passion. Alice developed a love of riding from the age of five, Attending small pony events near her home in southwest England.
In time, success brought confidence And ponies became horses. Weighing in at almost half a ton, 9-year-old apollo needs a rider With a sure hand and steady nerves. At formal events, He and alice face obstacles of up to six feet high. But not today.
Alice's parents run this equestrian center near bristol As a full-time business. For the last few years, it's been alice's playground And a welcome break from her full-time job As a small animal vet. Whether in sport, leisure, or even art, The horse looms large in England's history.
Carved into these upper slopes of the berkshire downs Over 3,000 years ago Is one of the most intriguing pieces of land art in England. The uffington white horse. The significance Of the 360-foot-long prehistoric figure Is unclear. But its alignment with the midwinter sun Suggests a prehistoric spiritual connection. It may even represent an ancient celtic deity. Over the centuries, It would inspire the creation of similar land art All around britain.
There are many white horses, But there is only one rude man. It's dawn on the first day of summer. On a hill near the village of cerne abbas in dorset, A group of dancers welcome the rising sun. The centuries-old ritual May well have something to do with this...
The cerne abbas giant, England's most controversial land art. The origins of the huge chalk figure Are lost in time. For one obvious reason, Many believe it depicts an ancient fertility god. At one time, postcards of the giant Were the only indecent images that could be legally sent Through the english post office.
Morris dancing dates back over 600 years. Once banned by english puritans, It was revived by 17th-century farm laborers Who would dress up and perform for money When work was scarce. Troupes like the wessex morris men Are happy to perform for free.
Retired teacher jeremy wilton has been dancing for 40 years. Keen on keeping the ancient tradition alive, He travels all over the south of England, Performing at festivals and gatherings. The dance itself has traveled even further. English emigrants brought it across the atlantic, And today, there are at least 150 morris dance groups Active in the united states. Stretching for 95 miles along the coast of devon and dorset Is England's first designated natural world heritage site. An extraordinary story written in stone...
Where 185 million years of geological time Can be read like the pages of a book. Here at east cliff beach, The wind and waves have exposed layers of sedimentary rock And opened a window to the ancient past. Contained within the cliff face Is an almost complete record Of the triassic, jurassic, and cretaceous periods. The layers show this area's progression From desert to shallow tropical sea and marshland, Complete with the fossilized remains Of creatures that once lived here. This is the magnificent natural limestone arch of durdle door, Formed by coastal erosion about 140 million years ago.
The name derives from the old english word "thirl," Meaning "to pierce." For many years, the arch has featured in art and literature From the poetry of thomas hardy To the backdrop of films from "nanny mcphee" To "far from the madding crowd." 10 miles west of durdle door, Chesil beach on the dorset coast Is a spectacular 18-mile pebble strand Linking the mainland to the isle of portland.
Rising 50 feet high, The beach has seen many shipwrecks. During the age of sail, Vessels were regularly driven ashore By the fierce currents of the english channel. The pebbles of the strand increase gradually From pea-sized at the northwest To orange-sized at the isle of portland. It is said That smugglers landing here in the dead of night Could judge exactly where they were By the size of the stones underfoot.
During world war ii, The sparse population of the surrounding coast Allowed the beach to be used as a bomb testing range By the royal air force. In the years between the two world wars, A whole generation of british youngsters Were enthralled by the daring exploits Of fictional flying ace biggles. The creation of english writer w.E. Johns,
Pilot james bigglesworth of the royal flying corps Was a dashing gentleman hero Whose adventures regularly featured planes Just like this one. Hugely popular in England to this day, The books have inspired many would-be young aviators To train as pilots. Annabelle burroughes has had a passion for planes Since she was a young girl. Today, she pilots this de havilland tiger moth-- A classic biplane from the 1930s. As a lifelong fan of the biggles books, Flying was the only thing she ever wanted to do. After gaining her pilot's wings, She went on to become one of the few women To gain a coveted d.A. Aerobatic license.
But today, she's flying just for the fun of it. At henstridge airfield in somerset, Annabelle trains future pilots At what was once a world war ii aviation school. In 2017, her skills came to the fore When she saved the lives of three passengers, Skillfully landing her plane after it caught fire mid-flight. A feat worthy of james bigglesworth himself.
Many servicemen wounded during the first world war Ended up here, at the seaside town of brighton. This is the royal pavilion, A former seaside residence of king george iv, Converted in 1914 to a military hospital Specializing in the treatment and rehabilitation of amputees. The pavilion 's elaborate domes and minarets Reflected the extravagant tastes of the king And his fascination with the culture of india. But the architecture had another unintended positive influence. Many soldiers from the indian army Wounded on the western front Would find comfort in the strange familiarity Of their surroundings. Since the middle ages, England has been known as a wellspring Of literature, science, and scholarship-- A reputation forged in part By two of the world's most prestigious seats of learning.
Known as "the city of dreaming spires," Oxford is home to one of them-- The oldest university in the english-speaking world. Less than a hundred miles away on the river cam, Cambridge is the second. Between them, The two universities have produced 42 of britain's 56 prime ministers And a combined 148 nobel prize winners. Needless to say, competition between the two is intense, And it's not just academic. It's 6 a.M., And as the first weary commuters make their way into the city, The cambridge university women's boat club Are already halfway through their morning workout.
Sarah carlotti sits in the stern of the boat, Acting as stroke. During races, It's her job to set the pace and timing of the oar blades. In 2018, Cambridge won the women's boat race title For the second year in a row, Beating fierce rivals oxford by seven lengths. Preparing for next year's varsity race On the thames in london Will involve six grueling months of daily practice For sarah and the crew. Combining all this With the equally rigorous demands of academic life Is no easy challenge.
Then again, Another win over oxford will make it all worthwhile. Some place names offer no clue about the places they describe. But not here. This is bath in somerset, 100 miles west of london, A popular spa town for centuries. This ornate structure is a bath house. Fed by natural thermal springs, It was built by the romans in the first century a.D.--
One of only two surviving roman baths That still have hot water running through them. Nearby is the royal crescent, A terrace of luxurious homes built by wealthy londoners 1,500 years after the time of the romans. Keen to sample the curative properties Of bath's natural hot springs, They came, they saw, And they brought their georgian architecture with them. The town's distinctive honey-hued palladian buildings Contribute to bath's unique air of timelessness And make it a favorite filming location For period dramas.
Thanks to the popularity of shows like "downton abbey," The world has developed a taste For the trappings of a simpler, more leisurely age. Here on the country lanes of somerset, Pamela pridham and her daughter kate Are indulging a passion for a time in english history When horses, not cars, ruled the road. Driver beverley unsworth has been traveling these roads In her classic carriage for ten years now, And gray mare star has been with her from day one. Beverley's carriage may be limited to one horse power, But who needs speed? 16-year-old star provides this time-honored form of transport With something better-- Personality. And a chance for pamela and kate to live a dream, lost in time. All that's missing is a fairytale castle.
A great labyrinth formed by 2,400 yew trees. From above, a circle, Set in a square representing a queenly crown. This is the great maze of leeds castle in kent. Once a fabulous playground for the rich and famous, The 800-year-old castle Was built on a series of islands on a lake Formed by the river len.
In the 1930s, This was the home of anglo-american socialite Lady olive baillie, Who hosted lavish house parties Attended by movie stars, politicians, and royalty. At that time, Joseph kennedy senior was the u.S. Ambassador to britain. In 1938, his sons-- 21-year-old jfk and his older brother joseph-- Were guests at leeds castle.
Both would later serve in world war ii, But tragically, joseph was killed in 1944 On active duty in England. He, like thousands of other americans Who never made it home, Is commemorated on english soil to this day. Three million american men and women Served in britain during world war ii. Here, on a 30-acre site donated by cambridge university, The american war cemetery is the final resting place Of 3,812 servicemen and women Who lost their lives in the north atlantic convoys And the skies over europe.
The wall of the missing commemorates a further 5,127 Whose bodies were never recovered. Flanking the wall, Three reflecting pools Echo the design of a similar monument At washington's national mall. Every may, a memorial day ceremony is held here To honor those who made the ultimate sacrifice.
The guards polo club in windsor Is home to the world's oldest equestrian sport. On the manicured turf of its ten pitches, Teams of four compete much as the ancient persians did 2,000 years ago. Polo was brought to England by army officers Who had seen the game played in india. That strong military connection survives to this day. The son of a soldier, Jamie greyson fell in love with the sport aged ten, Watching his father play. His number 4 shirt marks him out As the team's key defensive player.
Played on a pitch About nine times the size of an american football field, The game is divided into four periods Called "chukkas." Competition is intense, And because the ponies tire quickly, Strict rules dictate that players change mounts During breaks in play. With annual fees of $28,000 And ponies costing upwards of $150,000, It's no surprise That polo is known as the sport of kings. Both prince charles And his father, the duke of edinburgh, Are members of the guards club, Which places jamie in rather privileged company, Not to mention the adrenaline rush Of the world's most exclusive sport.
The city of bristol On the river avon in southwest England Has a long maritime history. From here in 1497, The explorer john cabot sailed for the new world, Becoming the first european since the vikings To land on mainland north america. During the 18th century, however, That same port had a sinister reputation. From 1700 to 1807, The infamous bristol slave trade Carried around half a million human captives From africa to the americas. This bridge spanning bristol harbor Commemorates all of them, But it is named after one-- Pero jones, an enslaved african who served the household Of 18th-century slaver john pinney.
In the bristol of pero's lifetime, The voice of dissent was rarely heard. Thankfully, that is no longer the case. In this city, Street art has long since become a voice to be reckoned with. Bristol's urban landscape was the first canvas Used by the most famous street artist of all-- Banksy.
His hometown features dozens of his earliest works, Including "girl with a pierced eardrum," A pastiche of the famous vermeer painting, With an alarm box taking the place Of the original earring. That same spark of non-conformity Defines a certain type of englishness, An attitude that was once at the heart Of the mod movement. Ok, they're not exactly the wild bunch, And their multicolored scooters Will never be mistaken for harleys. But these men and women Were once at the cutting edge of english youth culture.
Jim burnham has been a mod since the 1960s. Back then, he fell in love with the clothes and the music, And he's remained loyal ever since. The bristol mod scooter club was set up over ten years ago. Many of these riders have been mods Since their teenage years. And retirement hasn't dimmed their lust for life.
Mods are very particular, Especially when it comes to their scooters. These customized lambrettas are a classic italian make-- Each one a reflection of the rider's personal style. And that, in short, is what it means to be a mod. Believe it or not, back in the '60s, Jim and his mates were seen As a symptom of England's moral decay. Of course, times have changed.
Today the mod movement Is regarded as classic english culture. Here in bristol, the mods have withstood the test of time. And they're not alone in that. Rising 250 feet over the river below, The world-famous clifton suspension bridge Has spanned the avon gorge near bristol since 1864. Built at the height of the industrial revolution, It's a masterpiece of victorian engineering.
Its designer, The legendary british engineer isambard kingdom brunel, Is regarded as the greatest engineer of his age. Much of his work remains unsurpassed, Even by modern technology. Weighing 1,500 tons And originally designed for light horse-drawn traffic, This bridge can still withstand The four million vehicles that cross it every year. Modern computer analysis reveals the design to be An almost perfect calculation of the minimal weight required To maintain maximum strength. Hugely over budget, the bridge took 11 years to build. Describing it as "my first love, my darling," Brunel sadly never lived to see his creation completed.
A testament to brunel's vision and skill, The bridge is a monument to a golden age. But just as engineering can tame the natural world, It can also embrace it. On the site of a disused china clay quarry On the south coast of cornwall, The eden project has been called the eighth wonder of the world. Completed in the year 2000, Two huge domed enclosures surrounded by botanical gardens Are filled with thousands of rare plant species-- Each structure simulating a different exotic climate. Its aim is to encourage a better understanding Of mankind's relationship with the natural environment-- Uniting rather than dividing the two. Covered with steel-framed hexagonal thermoplastic panels, The two domes enclose 5.5 acres of rare plant species.
007 fans may also recognize the domes As the diamond mine of villain gustav graves In the bond movie "die another day." Those interested In a more robust relationship with the soil Could do worse than try their hand at buggy racing. Since he left school, William hopkins has had a few careers, Including work as a banker.
But somehow, even the thrill of high finance Failed to provide the adrenaline rush He was looking for. And so he turned to buggy racing And a job at this custom-built track Designed to test the nerve as well as driving skills. Though fully enhanced with safety features, These state-of-the-art buggies are primarily built for speed. William is a skillful driver, And he knows every bump and corner of this track. But he never stops trying to beat his personal best time. And that's what this sport is all about.
Speed has driven innovation in the most unlikely of places. Here at the eurotunnel terminal in folkestone, Passengers drive aboard a train destined for coquelles, Near calais in France. Their 31-mile journey takes them beneath the english channel At speeds of up to 99 miles per hour And depths of up to 250 feet below the seabed. The channel tunnel Is regarded as britain's greatest engineering project And one of the seven wonders of the modern world.
At the time of its completion By a british and french consortium in 1994, It was the most expensive construction project Ever conceived. A train carrying road traffic at high speed Through an underground tunnel beneath the sea. So bold and unexpected, it beggars the imagination.
So brilliant, it takes the breath away. Now, that's quintessentially english. Northern England Birthplace of industrial revolution. Its great cities changed the history of the world And helped forge an empire. A land of contrast...
Where a lightbulb moment illuminated a whole city... And an ancient ruin spawned horror's bloodiest fiend. From the castle where harry potter learned to fly, To the birthplace of a band that changed pop music forever, The forest where the legend of robin hood was born, And a theater of dreams Where the world's greatest team sport plays out. Ever changing, always innovating, Past, present and future in perfect harmony.
This is northern England. Beadnell bay in northumberland. A sandy two-mile stretch of England's northeast coast. At this northerly latitude, Winds blowing off the north sea can be bracing, even in summer. But for father and son kite surfers Kevin and jonny anderson, it's paradise.
Kevin used to work in the auto industry, But left to follow his dream in the world of adventure sports. Jonny first took to the water nine years ago. Since then, he's developed a passion For this exhilarating sport that's evolved Into a full-time job as a kite surfing instructor With his dad. The waters of the north sea are famously cold, But jonny's not bothered. Northerners are famously hardy folk.
Up here, where the tides of history have turned many times, There's a real pride of place, Hard won and fiercely maintained. This was once the northern frontier of the roman empire-- Hadrian's wall, completed around 134 a.D. A fortified barrier 73 miles long, Rising 20 feet high, Dividing britain from coast to coast. Built to contain and subdue The fierce tribes of scotland, The wall would remain intact, Manned by legions of soldiers, for more than three centuries.
The romans abandoned britain over 1,600 years ago, But even now, evidence of their military infrastructure Can still be seen. And one of the most impressive examples Is right here in northumberland. Ever since he visited hadrian's wall at the age of 10, William cassidy has been fascinated by archaeology. Before retirement, he traveled the world As a royal air force engineer. Now, he spends his days uncovering the secrets Of this ancient fort called vindolanda.
Once the front line of roman britain, This huge military complex is the most extensive ruin Of its kind anywhere in europe. It contains the remains of cavalry stables, Infantry barracks, administrative offices, And even a main street Along which shops and taverns once stood. Vindolanda was the largest of many military bases South of hadrian's wall. Romans haven't set foot here for over 1,600 years. At least, not ancient romans.
Italian-born site supervisor marta alberti Could well be walking in her ancestors' footsteps. She's one of the many archaeologists Bringing the past to life. Already, they've unearthed 400 carved wooden pages Known as the vindolanda tablets; Remarkable accounts of daily life at the fort, From troop movements To a birthday party invite sent by the wife of an official, The earliest known letter written in latin by a woman. The romans may have been the first to conquer britain, But they weren't the last. This is alnwick, historic seat of the dukes of northumberland. And possibly the most photographed castle in England.
Founded in 1096, 30 years after the norman invasion, It changed hands three times During the 15th century war of the roses, A 32-year struggle for the english throne Between the rival factions of york and lancaster. For some however, this castle will always be associated With the world's most famous boy wizard. In "harry potter and the philosopher's stone," Alnwick's battlements became the walls of hogwarts. This section was used as a backdrop To the scene where harry is taught to fly For the first time.
Today, a group of fans, young and not so young, Are recreating the memorable broomstick lesson Given by madam hooch. The classes are hugely popular. A chance for disciples of the franchise To indulge their own flights of fancy, Without the crash landing. Harry potter's second favorite mode of transport Was, of course, steam, Less fanciful perhaps, but in some ways just as magical. Running through the west yorkshire village of haworth Is the keighley and worth valley railway. A former main line, Now operated as a self-contained heritage railway, It carries over 100,000 tourists every year.
Steam railways like this Once served the greatest transport network in the world, Serving hundreds of mills and factories In the industrial north of England. The railways would change England forever, Opening the way for free movement of goods and people. By 1838, manchester and london, Once separated by a four-day journey, Were just four hours apart.
For the wealthy industrialists of the 19th century, A new age had begun. At one time, this vast 19th century textile mill At shipley in west yorkshire Turned vast quantities of raw fiber into fabrics and clothing. But it was more than just a manufacturing plant. It was a unique social experiment Founded by industrialist sir titus salt. His statue in nearby roberts park depicts a man Who would revolutionize the very nature of victorian industry. Sir titus salt was deeply religious And considered it his duty to better the living conditions Of those who worked for him.
And this was his grand plan, saltaire, A model town designed to fulfill all the needs Of his workforce and their families. And so, in 1853, beside the leeds and liverpool canal, Salt built his factory. Along with it, he built homes, schools, infirmaries, Libraries, and public bath houses, Insisting that all his employees bathed at least twice a week.
Saltaire wasn't the first industrialized model village, But it was one of the largest and most successful. Today it's a unesco world heritage site. Salt's experiment made him famous, The epitome of a new kind of enlightened capitalist.
When he died in 1876, Over 100,000 people, including thousands of grateful employees, Lined the route of his funeral procession. The same sense of community that once prevailed here Resonates elsewhere in english life. Swimmer jenna chatburn competed several times At the english national championships. These days, this ornate mushroom-shaped pool Is her office. For the past eight years she has worked here As a leisure attendant and swimming instructor.
To americans, it's simply an outdoor pool, But to britons of a certain age, The lido, a latin word meaning beach, Is a place that evokes unique childhood memories. This lido at ilkley near bradford Was built in the 1930s, A time when England's love of outdoor swimming Was matched by a craze for art deco design. Just as these elegant remnants of 20th century life Are preserved, Great swathes of northern England's natural landscape Remain untouched by development.
The peak district of derbyshire Was England's first designated national park And it still attracts millions of visitors every year. Covering over 550 square miles, Most of it a thousand feet above sea level. The landscape of the peak district Ranges from high moorlands and cliffs in the north To rolling green hills and dales to the south. One of the peak district's most idyllic landscapes Is the monsal valley... Its shaded woodlands and crystal waters Glorious at the height of summer.
Friends neil, john, jackie, and susan live nearby And walk here together most days. It's hard to believe Anything could spoil this bucolic splendor. The headstone viaduct was built in 1863 By the midland railway company, It spans the river wey and once completed the rail line From manchester to london. But it wasn't to everybody's taste.
The 19th century writer john ruskin Deemed it a monstrosity, A monument to the greed of the railway company, And a blight on the natural beauty of the peaks. There hasn't been a train in the valley Since the line was closed in 1968. But even though the rails are gone, This route still sees a lot of traffic. Today, it forms part of an 8.5-mile hiking route Known as the monsal trail.
Here at this magnificent stately home in derbyshire, The sister of a future american president Once fell in love with an english duke. Chatsworth house, seat of the dukes of devonshire, Passed down through 16 generations Of the cavendish family. Their vast estate once covered 35,000 acres Of the derbyshire countryside.
The house still contains One of the world's finest art collections. In its heyday, chatsworth employed a staff of 40 To maintain its day-to-day affairs. Two full-time window cleaners worked all year round To maintain the dukes' pristine view Of their magnificent domain.
Chatsworth's 100-acre garden was created By England's foremost landscape designer, capability brown. At one time, 100 gardeners tended these grounds. First set out in 1555, they were redesigned many times.
1,200 yew trees were planted to create chatsworth's maze. It stands on the site Of what was once England's largest glass structure: A greenhouse so vast that its eight boilers required An underground railway to keep them supplied with coal. For all its good fortune, Chatsworth has also known tragedy. In 1944, kathleen kennedy, Sister of the future u.S. President john f. Kennedy, Married william cavendish. William, a soldier and the heir to chatsworth, Was killed in action that same year.
Kathleen herself died in a plane crash in 1948. In derbyshire, at the southeast of the peak district, Stands the town of matlock. Like a swiss alpine village without the snow, Matlock seems an unlikely place to find cable cars, But they've transformed the once-faded glory of this town. In the late 18th century, Matlock was a fashionable spa resort Whose thermal springs were believed To have curative properties. But the real attraction was located on an escarpment Above the town, known as the heights of abraham. Once, the former workers of a lead mine Decommissioned in the 19th century Took visitors deep beneath the earth And into a labyrinth of mineshafts and natural caves.
In time, however, When the thermal springs lost their appeal And visitors tired of the long climb up the hill, Matlock went into decline. Until in 1984, a spark of genius led to the introduction Of the cable cars and a new era in the fortunes of the town. Traveling a third of a mile in groups of three, Reaching heights of more than 500 feet, The cable cars offer spectacular views of matlock And the surrounding landscape of the peak district. Centuries ago, giant oak forests covered much of England-- A great sea of green that would gradually disappear To make way for agricultural expansion. But there are still places Where vestiges of that ancient woodland remain. And here in the northwestern county of nottinghamshire Stands the most famous of them all: Sherwood forest.
These are the woods Where the legendary medieval outlaw robin hood Is said to have lived, Robbing the rich to help the poor. In the middle ages, Sherwood was the hunting ground of kings and princes, And it covered nearly a quarter of the county. Today, just 1,000 acres remain, Protected as a national nature reserve. At the heart of sherwood stands the tree, according to legend, That sheltered robin and his merry men as they slept. The tree measures 33 feet around the base And weighs around 23 tons, Its massive limbs have been supported by scaffolding Since victorian times. Thought to be at least 800 years old, The major oak would almost certainly have been alive During the late medieval period In which robin hood's legend is set.
At the nearby village of edwinstowe In the heart of sherwood forest, The 12th century church of saint mary Attracts thousands of visitors every year. According to legend, It was here that robin hood and maid marion were wed. Told and retold over the centuries, The legend of robin hood has adapted to suit a changing world Without ever losing its connection to the past. And the same can be said Of northern England's greatest city, manchester. Once a hub of commerce and manufacture Like nowhere else on earth, in the 19th century, It would become the world's first fully industrialized city.
Today, its innovative architecture and gleaming towers Reflect a new phase in manchester's history. On quays that once jostled with trade ships, Stood warehouses crammed full of the raw material That gave manchester its 19th century nickname, Cottonopolis. Founded in 79 a.D., The roman fort of mamucium Would grow to become England's second city. Built for the modern equivalent of three billion dollars, The ship canal that connected it to the port of liverpool Was once the longest river navigation system in the world. Three fifths of all the cotton produced in the u.S.
Once passed through these waters. During the american civil war, That same industry was devastated When the city's workforce Refused to handle slave-picked cotton. A stance that president lincoln would later praise As "sublime christian heroism." As its heavy industries declined, The city would survive, Renewing its own fortune through innovation. And it was at manchester university That much of that innovation took place.
Here in 1917, the nuclear age began, When the pioneering work of physicist ernest rutherford Resulted in the splitting of the atom. Another manchester alumnus Was the brilliant mathematician alan turing, Who deciphered germany's enigma machine And changed the course of the second world war. At his office in this building, Turing's work on artificial intelligence Would lay the foundations for modern computing. Tragically, turing was betrayed by the prejudice of his time. Criminally convicted for homosexuality, He took his own life in 1954. Manchester continues to innovate through architecture and design.
The award-winning civil justice building Is known to locals as the filing cabinet. Half a mile south, The 47-story beetham tower rises high above the city; One of the thinnest skyscrapers in the world. In a city once known for its smog, One angel square is among the cleanest, Most progressive designs in europe.
It's heated by passive solar gain. It recycles both rain and wastewater, And even though 3,000 people work here, The entire building has a carbon emissions rating of zero. Once the heart of cottonopolis, salford quays epitomize Manchester's 21st century regeneration. Flanking the canal, the t.V. Studios of media city And the deconstructed architecture Of the imperial war museum. And completing the cultural triangle, the lowry, An arts and theater complex Named after manchester's most famous painter, l.S. Lowry.
Close by, at another great theater, A different kind of drama plays out. This is old trafford, home to the world's richest soccer club, Manchester united. Known as the theater of dreams, This stadium has seen some of the greatest players The game has ever known, And two of its most legendary managers, Sir matt busby and sir alex ferguson.
The club is currently owned by the american glazer family, Who also own the tampa bay buccaneers nfl franchise. Recently valued at $4.12 billion, Manchester united is little short of a global phenomenon.
But that's of mere passing interest To the people of salford. With its history deeply rooted in the community, United is and always will be their team. For sam chesters, soccer is more than just a game.
In 1944, her grandfather owen chesters Founded barr hill ladies football club at salford. Sam's been playing on this pitch since the age of 10. It's all about team spirit and camaraderie, Honed with a fierce, competitive edge.
Sam has played every defensive And attacking position in the game, But the one that appealed to her most was goalkeeping. In a way, she's following an old family tradition. Sam's grandfather arthur also kept goal for a local team.
That team just happened to be manchester united. Of course, soccer's not the only way to fill a stadium. Who needs a ball when you can have "wonderwall?" After world war ii, suburbs like burnage, Just four miles south of manchester, Saw an explosion in their population. And as the children of the baby boomers found their voice, Creativity surged from these conservative red-brick homes.
Gallagher brothers liam and noel Formed their band oasis not far from here. This playing field was the backdrop To the video for "shaker maker," one of their first hits. In the lyrics, noel gallagher wrote, "mr. Sifter sold me songs when I was just 16." And this was what he was singing about: Sifters record shop on fog lane, A favorite haunt of the gallagher brothers Long before they were famous. Before cheap air travel opened up the sunspots of europe, This is where northerners came on holiday: Blackpool, 40 miles northwest of manchester, England's most famous resort. Blackpool was once a fashionable spa town For well-to-do victorians.
But when the railways brought it within reach of factory towns Across the northwest, everything changed. Happy to escape the tedium of their working lives, If only for a few days, Workers flocked to blackpool in their thousands. Today, the town's pleasure beach Is England's most popular amusement park. Along with the carousels and waltzers Of the central and north pier, The park is home to giant roller coasters, Including britain's highest, the big one.
But it's at night that blackpool really comes alive. Every autumn, a million bulbs create a light show Known as the blackpool illuminations. And its centerpiece is the 518-foot blackpool tower, One of northern England's most iconic landmarks. Modeled on the eiffel tower, It has overlooked the promenade since 1894. Back then, visitors paid the princely sum of one shilling To take the elevator to the observation deck.
In 1879, the street lights of blackpool Became one of the first in the world To be powered by electricity, An innovation that would forever change the way people lived. Not that there's anything wrong With wanting things to stay the same. The rugged beauty of the yorkshire moors Is often shrouded by the clouds and rain Of an unforgiving climate; but not today.
These classic british roadsters, One of which featured memorably In mel brooks' 1976 film silent movie , Are morgans. They're hand-built, with a distinctive look and feel That's hardly changed in decades. Richard and sandy cole like them so much, They spent the best part of their life savings on one, And they don't regret that for a second. A retired royal air force combat pilot, Richard saw active duty over iraq During operation desert storm. These days, though he still travels in formation, It's a little closer to the ground. For all the world, the village of haworth On the edge of the moors looks frozen in time.
It would appear little has changed Since clergyman patrick bronte came here In the early 19th century. Three of the parson's daughters, charlotte, emily and anne, Would write some of the greatest novels in english literature. In her late 20s, emily wrote "wuthering heights," Using the moors as an unforgettable backdrop To her masterpiece.
The intense passion of cathy and heathcliff's doomed romance Still resonates to this day, Made even more poignant By the fate of its author and her sisters. Tragically, all three would die young. Anne was buried in scarborough. Her sisters lie here in the family vault at haworth.
In 1890, the irish author bram stoker paid a visit To the fishing village of whitby on the yorkshire coast. A random book choice at a local library Could well have inspired the creation Of the greatest fiend of horror culture, Count dracula. During his time here, stoker visited The atmospheric 16th century ruin of whitby abbey. Its ghostly silhouette would fire his imagination. Stoker was especially intrigued By the constantly changing light on the abbey's walls, Not to mention the thousands of bats He found roosting in its shadows.
Later, at a library that once stood on the village quay, He found a history book That mentioned a mysterious transylvanian count. And so, a blood-soaked legend was born. In stoker's tale, the ship carrying dracula Is driven ashore at whitby during a storm. Coming ashore as a black dog, The shadow of the count soon falls Over the sleepy fishing village. Whitby continues to attract fans of the legend, Some of whom have even been known To ask for dracula's grave. Such is the power of the novel.
268 miles long, The pennine mountain range Stretches from derbyshire to the scottish border. Separating northwest England From yorkshire, They are known as The backbone of England. In the pennine uplands of yorkshire lie the dales, An area of outstanding natural beauty And a national park since 1954.
800 square miles of stunning hills and u-shaped valleys That yorkshire people have long since dubbed "god's own country." Farmed for thousands of years, The rolling pastures of its foothills are divided Into a vast patchwork of fields by dry stone walls. From the highest point at the top of whernside hill, You can see blackpool 50 miles to the south. At the foot of whernside, The settle carlisle railway line Crosses the spectacular ribblehead viaduct... A 19th century bridge whose 24 stone arches Took four years to build.
It's said that an accidental train journey Gave yorkshire one of its best-loved institutions. Every year, England consumes 60 billion cups of tea, Many of them sipped in tearooms Like bettys in the yorkshire town of harrogate. Bettys was established in 1919, when, legend has it, A swiss immigrant called frederick belmont Boarded the wrong train in london And ended up in harrogate by chance.
A confectioner by trade, Belmont fell in love with the town and set up shop, Serving tea and swiss confectionary; A winning formula, as it turned out. Oddly, given the fame of this tearoom, Nobody is quite sure Where the name bettys actually came from. The undulating roads of the yorkshire dales, Largely free of traffic, are ideal for serious road cycling. The sport has become hugely popular in recent years, Thanks in part to the 20 gold medals Won by british cyclists at the last two summer olympics. As of 2018, britons also dominate The greatest road race of them all: The tour de France, winning six out of the last seven events.
In typically proud yorkshire fashion, Richmond cycle club claims to be one of the oldest in britain, If not the world. Leader of the pack sven wardle has been cycling the dales For over 20 years, Competing on the toughest circuits This terrain has to offer. Sven's dedication to the sport has seen him take on The most challenging mountain roads in europe, Attempting the same murderous ascents Faced by tour de France cyclists. Every year, richmond cycle club organizes a race Through the dales-- A challenging 118-mile ride That includes seriously tough uphill sections. Not all the byways of the north are quite so unforgiving.
Take penny lane for example, Enshrined in song by four of England's most famous sons. The early morning sun seems to bring this statue Of john, paul, george and ringo to life. Even now, almost half a century Since they became global superstars, The fab four are still heroes in their hometown.
From their early gigs at the cavern club To the streets and parks of their childhood, Liverpool inspired many of the beatles' most famous songs. And fans still come in search of locations Immortalized in the lyrics they wrote. This is strawberry fields in the liverpool suburb of woolton Where john lennon attended garden parties as a child. The name would inspire one of his most personal songs.
The stop where a young paul mccartney caught the bus To his friend john's house would become famous As penny lane's "shelter in the middle of the roundabout." Today, it's part of a magical mystery tour experience, Taking fans around the various locations Associated with the band. And yes, there's even a yellow submarine. During the summer months, Dedicated fans can spend "a hard day's night" In the psychedelic interior Of this 1960s-themed floating hotel.
The peace monument of king's dock Commemorates the life of john lennon And his long-held dream of world peace. Created by american artist lauren voiers, It was unveiled on October the 9th, 2010, On what would have been lennon's 70th birthday. On the estuary Where the river mersey flows into the irish sea, Liverpool was once known as England's gateway to the world. From here, goods and people Flowed to and from every part of the globe.
This trade made liverpool the richest city outside of london, With buildings on a par With anything the capital had to offer. By the late 19th century, Britain's industrial revolution began losing steam, And liverpool suffered a long decline. But just like manchester, The city has found ways to forge a new future from its past. The warehouses of the royal albert dock Were once vast storage sites for goods and raw materials. Today, its shops, museums and galleries Attract four million visitors every year.
The river mersey has always been the soul of liverpool, But there are places in northern England Where water has come to define the landscape In even more inspiring ways. This is kirkstone mountain pass in cumbria, Gateway to the lake district national park, A magical landscape of hills, lakes and woodlands That for centuries has fired the imagination Of writers and poets. The 3,000-foot monolith of scafell pike Is England's highest mountain. Surrounding it are the great peaks of the southern fells... An ancient landscape whose grandeur and majesty Never fails to impress those who come here. Radiating outward on all sides And covering an area of 900 square miles Are the lakelands that give this region its name.
The dark glacial lake of wast water Is the deepest in britain, 258 feet at its lowest point. Ullswater, nine miles long and nearly a mile wide, Is the national park's second biggest lake, And to many, the most beautiful in England. To the south, the great ribbon lake of windermere Is the largest in England. 11 miles long, it's a haven for pleasure cruisers And sportspeople alike. Since 1938, the mv swan has been a familiar sight on windermere, Offering tourists a taste Of what the aptly named poet william wordsworth Once described as "a universe of fairest forms." And this was his home, dove cottage.
The romantic poet lived most of his life in the lake district, And it would inspire some of his greatest work. Long before it was a national park, He saw it as a natural resource That everyone had the right to enjoy. In 1889, when the mv raven was first launched On ullswater lake, she was powered by steam.
Now, she runs on diesel, But otherwise, little has changed Since the day germany's last emperor stood on this very deck. In 1912, kaiser wilhelm ii took a trip on the raven During a visit to the lake district. Two years later, his armies would invade neutral belgium, Triggering the cataclysm of world war I.
Shepherds have moved their flocks across the hills Of the lake district for over 1,000 years. And where there are sheep, there are sheepdogs. Alan bradley has farmed here for most of his life. An expert sheepdog trainer, he communicates with jess, His faithful border collie since puppyhood, Using whistled commands. Collies are gentle and intelligent by nature, Making them ideal working dogs. What was once a job is now also a national sport.
Alan and jess compete in events all over England. Their success has resulted in a unique sideline business. Alan now runs sheep herding classes on his farm For stressed-out executives. Of course, some prefer to unwind in different ways. If you really want to leave the cares of the world behind, There's nothing quite like open water And the roar of a powerful engine. For all the leisurely charm of its waterways, The lake district has seen more than its fair share of speed...
And tragedy. In February 1930, Legendary racer sir harry seagrave Crossed windermere in his boat, miss England ii . Hitting 98.76 miles per hour, He broke the world water speed record. Midway through his third run, the boat capsized, Killing seagrave's mechanic victor helliwell, And ultimately, seagrave himself.
When it came to conquering the elements, Not every pioneer would pay for it with their life. In September 1784, Oxford pastry chef and amateur aeronaut james saddler Became the first englishman To take flight in a hot air balloon. He reached an altitude of 3,600 feet and traveled six miles In a craft whose basic design hasn't changed much since.
As an aeronautical engineer, Peter donkin has applied his skills To everything from military jet fighters To passenger planes. But his real passion is for hot air balloons. And when it comes to locations for a late evening flight, The rolling hills and shining waterways of the lake district Are hard to beat. Peter has taken to the skies Above ullswater and windermere many times. There are no onboard computer systems to check, No speed to maintain, no engines to monitor; Just the pure exhilaration of flight and a unique perspective On the stunning tableau laid out beneath his feet...
A vista that couldn't be more different To the industrial heartlands of the north, Where engineering would define a city and conquer the oceans. This is one of the greatest industrial centers In all of England, A city whose name was once synonymous with the fuel That fed the forges of its own engineering powerhouse... Newcastle upon tyne. Like liverpool and manchester on the far s