Amitabh Kant & Anupam Yog : Design & Public Policy : A Dialogue; IDF 3013 - Design Matters!

Amitabh Kant & Anupam Yog : Design & Public Policy : A Dialogue; IDF 3013 - Design Matters!

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you know this is essentially an urban century the UN is forecasted bad by 2030 almost seventy percent of the world will be living in urban cities now cities while they are occupied just about three percent of the Earth's landmass all those fifty percent of the people live in cities at the moment but they emit about almost two third of the greenhouse gas emissions and therefore if countries like India are to emulate the model of the Western world in the designing of their cities then you will need for planet Earth but alas we have only one planet Earth and therefore you need a very different strategy a very innovative approach to urbanization and we are talking at a point of time when urbanization has actually ended across America it's ended across Europe it's almost ending in China but in India the process of urbanization has just begun in a big way and the several studies one of which by McKenzie recently saying that by 2030 you will have 350 million additional Indians getting into the urbanization process by 2050 you will have 700 million additional Indians getting into the urbanization process and actually in reality every minute in India that 30 Indians moving from rural areas to urban areas and therefore the way we organize will determine India's future and the designing of urban spaces the designing of Indian cities will be the biggest challenge India's confronted with I'm heading a project which is known as the delhi-mumbai industrial corridor I am a civil servant I'm a government officer and my job is to link up delhi and mumbai whether with a container train and all the goods produced in the northern part of india are actually brought through either lorries or passenger trains and therefore because seventy percent of the goods come by lorries there's a lot of co2 emission and therefore this container train which will run in 2017 will bring put all the goods in to the ports on the western coast of india today it takes about 13 to 14 days for goods to move through lorries by the end of 2017 goods will be put into the ports on the western coast of india within 12 hours and this is a revolutionary shift which will take place in india but on both sizes this corridor the Government of India has planned seven new cities this new corridor passes through six states of India and seven new cities in India this for the first time India has done thinking big thinking large thinking innovatively and therefore the strategy of urbanization is very critical you know when cities were made in America land gas and water were all cheaply available and because they were cheaply available the Americans made sprawling cities you could live in New Jersey travel to manhattan by car and therefore you the cities were made for cars and not for people and actually at that point of time the American car companies bought over the railways and destroyed the railway companies just to give you an example to cities made at the same point of time in history Atlanta and Barcelona same point of time in history catering to the same population 2.8 million both Atlanta and Barcelona in Atlanta ninety-eight percent 97.8 to be precise percent of the people travel by car in Barcelona sixty-six percent of the people use public transportation and another eighteen percent either cycle or walk the co2 emission in Atlanta is 12 times more than Barcelona 12 times more now Atlanta can come down to the same level of co2 emission as Barcelona but you will have to virtually destroy Atlanta build it anew and create 4670 eight new metro stations and therefore today's cities have to be made on the back of public transportation you have to recycle water recycle waste and bring in new technologies and I'll talk about some of these things what is increasingly being talked about it smart cities of the future what IBM talks about a smart city what Cisco talks about is smart and intelligent cities and what Koreans are talking about as ubiquitous cities of the future the session is on public policy and I'll quickly run you through I've been associated as a government officer as a secretary tourism when we did the God's own country campaign around Kerala and I was joined secretary in the Ministry of Tourism when we did the Incredible India campaign and I'll quickly try and run you through what design means in the context of public policy now one of the things which struck me about vasquez presentation was about going back to one's roots watch being designed on the back of India's history and culture watches being designed and therefore one of the key challenges was that the Incredible India campaign started when there was a huge crisis 26 in January had happened you know we had a lot of crisis one after are you trying to bring consumer demand back in India India was a poorly rated in the World Travel and Tourism Council is extremely poorly rated there were key international concerns India's image as a tourism friendly country was extremely poor air connectivity was extremely poor but India was still seen as extremely rich in culture and heritage there was a big belief inauthenticity history art and culture the wife put some counsel said that India can be a very big employment creator through tourism there's a huge potential for civilization growth at that point of time this started this was done around 2002 and actually WTTC had said that between 2008 and 18 India can create more can have higher analyze real growth in China code and the aim was to really position to resume as a major engine of India's economic growth and move from a low volume low value strategy to a high value marketing strategy so we done a lot of we quickly did a lot of research and we looked at certain markets which will defend certain markets which will invest in certain markets which we will see now tourism is essentially unlike what I was talked about by in the case of watches when Bhaskar is the MD of titan watches he controls that company and from production to the marketing in tourism when you do destination marketing you're not in control you work through several you work through two operators taxi drivers destination managers and several so tourism is essentially a multi-sectoral activity now my experience was born out of the God's own country campaign where I was where i'd worked earlier and where we build this Kerala God's own country campaign one of the things about kerala was that we went back to its roots and the world of tourism works in a the designing of tourism works on a very simple principle that's differentiation and how do you differentiate a destination from the 200 or destination which are competing in the marketplace so we consciously decided will not if the West will go back to Carol as root and we identified certain products which are unique to Caroline its unique backwaters where you're constantly floating on the backwaters of kerala not a single nail is used in these households these are the traditional race rice barges we brought back the Carpenters would all moved away to the Gulf countries and today almost about 150 yard house boats operate under the backwaters of kerala we brought back the alternative system of medicine which was not about massage therapy but about a regimen and a way of life and we went back to the roots of Kerala to bring back the cultural holidays and therefore many of the traditional art forms which are dying in Kerala were brought back by us we brought back the elephant patients we brought back the traditional houseboats of Kerala lovely boat races which used to take place we took some of the poachers who used to work poachers without arms without hands and we make them guides and finance them for about five years and some of the finest wildlife sanctuaries where actually they became the guides we brought some unique products like three huts on in wine odd and moon are we brought back the traditional martial arts of Kerala the traditional cuisine of Kerala and many of these houses which were being broken down and sold as firewood was brought back and were restored and actually traditional kerala houses became a very intrinsic part of kerala tourism during that period and therefore just giving you a glimpse of how we went back to the roots of kerala michaela went on to become what National Geographic Traveler described as a paradise found one of them ten exotic paradises of the world it won several awards and then I moved on to as a civil servant to this Ministry of Tourism where we were confronted by this severe fall of the New York tars and several things happen consumer demand was very poor we went back to the tour operators and said that your market India they said we just can't market India because there's no consumer demand and the challenge was ready to sell India through a 360-degree campaign and this is just to quickly give you a glimpse of this steve mccurry shut over water image of Taj where we played around with I with the word I and the dot around it and this is I'm quickly running you through this because I want to really get into this process of urbanization but again as you see how we went back to the intrinsic strength and the in Haran strengths of in the other yoga the Iowa the you know and the Himalayas and the the deserts of Rajasthan the colors of India and we innovated every year with new campaigns in the international market we brought in a little bit of human to slit this campaign saying that with the stag are saying that not all Indians are polite hospitable and vegetarian and to think that these days men get away by giving chocolates to their wives and don't panic there's always rebirth so we went on to do a lot of work around this was huge on commercials but we were amongst the first few destinations which went very heavy on the net at that point of time we took over bout 360 taxis in London and we converted some of these gorras into taxi drivers we did some way exciting things around Berlin and did a very major campaign during this in New York on the Incredible India campaign but you know the important thing to understand is that destination marketing is not about advertising it's about experience it's about creating experiences and advertising can take you this far but the important stress was to improve the quality of experience on ground and as you will see at this unique heritage site of ajanta some of the greatest murals in the world were all being seen through candle lights there was encroachments there were about three sixteen kreutzman's there was no parking the poor signage ins we changed all that we forested the area we brought in eco-friendly buses we brought in fiber optic lighting we did conservation in prison preservation around a gentle aura and we created a unique experience around it hardwar full of dirt and filth on the guards and we changed that beautifully Tyler it lighted it so that Hinduism ad hard work can be lived out or not garbage and filth word out of a great spiritual experience mahabalipuram again we greened it lighted it conserved it preserved it and created an experience but again we created a huge experience this is himayat oh man delhi before and after just giving you a quick glimpse of what we did around the monuments in Delhi lighted them and we did a lot of work around taxi drivers we did a lot of work around guides we did work around budget hotels domestic tourism went up we saw the rise of the huge online travel market as a consequence of this marketing some very good youngsters came in and drove make my trip travel guru and so on and then as you'll see air transport grew as a consequence of this marketing lead strategy number of new airlines came in air service on domestic sector grew international operations opened up because of the pressure of marketing and airport development took off and therefore new airports across 33 cities of India Mumbai Delhi number of airport work was taken up new products came up medical tourism rural tourism and so on a huge range of new products we came up with experiences around Indian villages Raghuraj coup which is almost like an artist village every single house is like we opened up Andaman Islands we opened up focused on sustainability in a very big way we trained the taxi drivers earnings went up and again we were confronted with a crisis 2611 happened in Mumbai but you know there's the huge energy of India because India's economy was rising there was young India the rise of urban middle classes there was huge technological changes but India's potential as a tourism destination still not yet tapped and therefore we need to build both the soft power of India through tourism and it's hard path so this is brand building to my mind is about delivering it's about designing a campaign but also improving the quality of experience on ground it's also about training taxi drivers it's also about designing community participation it's also about it's not about just designing a product it's about looking at it in a holistic manner and building blocks around all the participants in that circle which enables growth to take place so while India becomes a young contemporary nation it's very important that India must retain its roots it must become a nation which goes back to its heritage culture its core values and therefore let me come back to what I am doing now I moved from Kerala I moved from India onto this project of making seven new cities in India and one of the challenges here as you will see is this corridor the red corridor which will link up Delhi the political capital with the economic capital J&P report goods will move within what takes 13 days today within 12 hours through this container train only container train and 12 oz that's a big paradigm shift and on both sides of this this passes through about six states of India which actually India will account for about seventy percent of cities will account for but seventy percent of india's gdp by 2030 so these are the seven city is being developed through the six states of india and one of the challenges is to try and make cities which are sustainable which are smart cities of the future which are interconnected by rail and road network and which are using new technology because india has been a very reluctant organizer you know much of our belief about urbanization is based on what our founding fathers said that villages are economically viable they're self-sufficient and this is the belief with the Chinese had till the 70s 70s they broke away from it theirs was also a peasantry led movement they broke away from it the drove manufacturing and if manufacturing has to be your driver which in India's case it's important then a logical consequence of that has to be urbanization because workers moving young managers move in and therefore if you've been a very slow organizer how do you use technology and convert it to your advantage and leapfrog and fortunately for us digital technology today enables convergence it cuts across power you know when american and european organization took place they created verticals they created a vertical of power they created a vertical of water they created a vertical of Public Safety but digital technology enables you to cut a cross and create a central command room the size of this and manage all your public utility from here and therefore how do you use technology how do you use public transportation to reduce the co2 emissions how can you do neighborhoods distributed across hi access mass transit corridor how do you build in energy sufficiency through renewables how do you and therefore these seven cities which you are talking about and I'm giving you the size and scale of it on one of the biggest urban developments in the world is taking place through this project and amitabha close to another bath in a place called dholera and I've listed down the master planners i have listed down the size and scale of this i'll quickly run you through this this is about dolares about 110 kilometers from emma debod we are linking it up by an eight-lane highway we look at the manufacturing demand this is what the site looks like at present in the rewrites of Wasteland which we are converting very little population we've gone through a process of town planning halcrow has done the master planning of this it's like planning for a new Mumbai much like the British shells are planned for and if imagine your church gate and really trains were not linked up and therefore the backbone of the cities across the high accessed transit corridor through the BRT LRT and the mass rapid transport systems and the intention is to bring in transit and walkability into the city by creating a compact city that promotes the creation of neighborhoods and walkable places connected by transit so we've looked at water we've looked at recycling of water we've looked at a huge amount of what 180 rounds of community participation we are doing another city at Pete improved our mouths in Maharashtra we're taking growth away from Mumbai into a city called Diggy and orange abad and you know Shandra and this is the master plan which aecom has done around diggy the first phase about 50 square kilometre this we look at the connectivities we design for new cities and therefore these are compact cities with a lot of focus around recycling of water and wasting this is how Shandra looks like this is the first phase of shindra this is we are doing a city in Haryana called man is a bubble in assessment region and we are linking it up with from the Metro which ends near to Google from there so that workers can move closely and therefore to my mind one of the points which is very important to understand if the design is not about luxury designed to my mind is about democratization of the process how do you take design to the people in a country like India many of these great Italian designers have been brilliant but they've been extremely elitist in nature and therefore it's important in the context of India the challenge for designers and the challenge for designers is essentially the democratization of the design and taking designed to the people and to my mind there the focus should be on quality not necessarily on luxury and one of the challenges in India's context is that bringing in design in the context of the process of urbanization and therefore this master plan as you see here looks across at 10 square kilometer areas and how do you how do you build up a city on building blocks of 10 square kilometer area so we linking it up with mass rapid transport area there is a challenge of water a huge challenge of water in Rajasthan where we are recharging aquifers we are Linda in integrated water master plan build up dynamic pricing system of water including recycling of water to an extent of almost ninety percent in this this whole city grows on the back of aerotropolis we're doing several things including logistic hubs and a new railway station in Uttar Pradesh but I think one of the key points is what I mentioned about using technology to leapfrog and because we we have a challenge of urbanization it's also an opportunity and how do we use digital technology and on top of the geographical master planning we've embedded the ICT the information communication technology ma master plan and we are creating a broadband in these cities so that you can have real-time governance and control into these cities and these are the first time in the world some of this building block of ICT of smart city has been created done in Rio little bit being done in Amsterdam some of it has been done by the Korean companies telecom companies so who made this into a business model of using technology for organization but this is the first time in the world anywhere in the world and integrative full new greenfield cities are being embedded with ICT technology to create smart cities of the future and smart and intelligent cities of the future so if you want to say that your bill at home for electricity should be only 500 rupees you should be on a on a mobile telephone of this size should be able to control every equipment in your house including your refrigerator electricity to say that you will only consume 500 rupees and you will master control it so a lot of work around this we are also doing a lot of work around skill development we've done a technology skill gap matrix so that every single person was moved out of agriculture sector is trained to get a job in this new manufacturing sector whole lot of work around industrial automation process control garments design food processing environmental engineering etc but one of the projects that we work very strongly on his creation of a very big city centre and le called the exhibition convention center in Delhi which aecom from the London studio have done the designing for us and I'm this is about 2 million square feet of exhibition area 4000 hotel rooms shopping areas retail just giving you a quick glimpse of this there's a there's a new museum for Delhi two million square feet of exhibition areas conference areas arena retail malls etc just giving you a glimpse of this so that you can understand the challenges behind structuring a project of this nature it's about seven minutes from the Delhi Airport so when you are doing a project of this nature you have to do a lot of designing around structuring of projects and that's really about what components of these projects can be will be public funded there are certain projects like drainage switch solid waste internal roads which necessarily must be funded by the government but you have to design other projects for private sector participation in our view is that for new cities in India you need government needs to step in to create the backbone of thirty thirty-five percent and create private sector participation so if you do this then your cities will break even in about 13 14 years and you can create a business model out of them basically the challenge is one of new organization 700 million Indians getting into this process of urbanization how do you create sustainable smart cities of the future how do you design cities well people can live work and play and it's not about just technology it's not just about new organization it's not about just hard infrastructure essentially the soul of the cities are made by the people living in these cities and people are the critical components they are the creative agents who bring changes in city and let me end by saying that Delhi was one of the greatest cities in the 15th century and Amir Khusro was a Muslim he wrote in the Persian language his ancestry was Turkish actually described Delhi at that point of time as one of the greatest cities in the world not because it was technologically one of the Great's greatest cities in the world it was culturally one of the greatest cities of the world but it was vibrant it was a great city because of the people living at that point of time and therefore the people make the soul of the city and that's the critical component thank you very much bunch of pictures and tell you what we are doing a lot of what amitabh spoke about is is what we are actually doing in a slightly different context the soul of the city is the people we are virtuous retail virtuous retail was set up in 2007 by a group called Xander which is a private equity investment firm with six hundred million dollars of capital to create patient capital since Rahul was talking about impatient cattle capital I'd I think one of the strategies has been to deploy patient capital to create new urban mixed-use retail led city centers we wanted to be in the top ten cities we are now in six of the top ten cities and are basically creating these from scratch greenfield developments I'm going to take you through one particular project which actually happens to lie in the city of Surat on the Delhi Mumbai and industrial corridor which was quite interesting to see with a month away from opening it's been exciting surah there's a thousand year old city great heritage used to be the primary port city of india a lot of content to play with we didn't set out to design a shopping mall we set out to design a tourism site we set out to design a community destination and these are not just labels we said how do you actually create a community destination it's so stereotype but this is what it looks like so I'm just going to take you through a few pictures this is the perspective the idea was to keep it very simple no glass plain california-style simple facade activated all around lots of outdoor areas that's a big mural of surat city in a fun way we took a lot of the local history as i mentioned we are on a road called dumas road so we created something called dumas square pedestrianised this is work in progress but in a month it's going to be ready that's actually signage that's going up so that's going to become double height that's the vr logo on the facade this is very close to my heart because when i went to surah the first time i saw very strange thing strange my eyes we're on dumas road every evening you have literally particularly on weekends hundreds if not thousands of cars parked and you have people picnicking on the curbside literally on the divider and you know it's a it's a it's a cultural quirk but we said how can we actually design our Center to celebrate this cultural work so we created something called the street which is an outdoor food court it's we created a bunch of brands with celebrate Suraj history cafe called go dutch something called the Lhari company lawry's are the carts in which food vendors actually sell their stuff the flying granny which is a child which is celebrates the train that goes from Bombay to earth on which all the suit please travel the diamond traders and so on and this is what it looks like it's a 240 square foot mural on the wall which from one end to the other as a chronological history celebrates the main events of surah so we said let's give the city back to the people in a way that they actually don't know little european-style cobblestone that's actually wooden deck under the covers it's it's still not quite there yet but the mural is getting there so it's a large public art installation public spaces can also be in private areas so I think that was the whole intent to create an interactive outdoor experience indoor experience this is actually the shopping mall component which leads into the street so you can actually see some of the branding of the village that we're in which is actually on the top be the primary port used to be MUC delaporte so we created something called Magdala plaza this is actually going inside the center this is what the center looks like which is a very shopping more less kind of environment you can see all the brands it's a very very large Center lots of event infrastructure there's also a space for luxury which actually has a boat which is 50 years old in surah and we adopted this boat race and this is this year's winning boat and a gentleman called parish mathy is going to be in surah next week to paint this boat and if there's going to be a sale 50 feet up that's going to go up and and it's going to adorn the ark as its called this is the ark that's the luxury zone on going out again we created something called festival park if you remember that ender that's actually where the map will go up a place for kids so our food code is called food box which again is designed to not really be a food court like the ones you see in shopping malls there's an outdoor area on the roof called sky deck that's actually a lady who's doing catchy art which is just started off this morning so I only have that picture but it's going to be kind of fun so that's basically what we are doing and the intent is to create a new city center which celebrates the past but it's it's creating tomorrow's heritage and that's our intent so what is it about you you're one of India's finest bureaucrats clearly and I know you and know of you for many years now but what is it secret and don't give us a comfortable answer don't give us a polite answer you know how do you do how did you do it in spite of the politicians you know in first of all thanks for writing my character role the one I'm going just fine as civil servants you are you know so I hope to get my promotion but let me first tell you that you know I honestly feel that you must work with conviction you must work with passion and you must work with credibility and I've had some very difficult jobs I mean for instance trying to do the God's own country campaign at the peak of the communist rule in Kerala and working with the tourism minister who didn't want any marketing to be done at that point of time in India but I've come to the conclusion that if you're strong headed if you're determined to do it if you are passionate about it and if you're if you have integrity and credibility nine point nine out of ten times you'll win the battle in government just keep pursuing it and you will always win and the chances of winning and government are let me tell you much more than in the private sector your courage of conviction will see you through in government in private sector you work for an individual in government who work for the system and therefore you will succeed how is a California style mall determining our future the future of our heritage using the heritage of our past just to put things in perspective I had said california-style facade not come upon yourself no it's not whatever it's a very important point I don't know what there are windows but that's not the point there's a whole outdoor space look I think it's it's it's an individual expression of by the way it's it's been designed by people from cept it's by it's been designed by people from Gujarat it's been designed by people who've traveled abroad who lived in India I think it's a collective expression of what we believe as people growing up in India as people who believe who understand the cultural quirks that need to be celebrated I think it's an integration there are constraints that you have to live within and there are opportunities that you need to find within those constraints we have designed this Center to be pedestrian friendly actually mimic public infrastructure so that when there is a metro there is a bus rapid transport corridor that comes up next to it you can actually integrate because we want it to be pedestrian friendly we have created an a very large outdoor space branded it with with with the identity of the local community because we believe the local community needs to identify with those places I'm not saying it's right or wrong you can come and look at it for yourself and then make your own conclusions one thing that we all say you know as designers is that there's no support from the other side you're partly on the other side I don't think you're not a designer but I think your partner with outside what are your top three cribs about designers you know what's lacking and designers well I've always believed you know have first of all income and I've always believed that you must work with the work with the best you know never go for mediocrity so I've always believed in working with the best people around the most creative talents around I have one basic principle of government I've always broken and broken ruthlessly and with full venom is the principle of the lowest cost what in government is termed as al1 principle and I've always believed that quality really drives the energy of the government system and if you start working on the lowest cost you will get the worst possible designs and therefore across my experience I change the pattern into something called the quality come cost basis and I said in a creative interpretation in government if you if you are trying to drive India's experience of tourism around the world you can't possibly work around l1 so we worked out a structure of quality come cost where we selected agencies on a quality of eighty percent on only twenty percent on price and there was some of the best creative designers across India work with me and as I said we went back to the root of India we actually wanted to experience and unfortunately I couldn't show you some of the film's around taxi drivers guides about dirt and filth and all that on how really to motivate Indians using americano you rukan into some some of these things I just conferred and there was also shortage of time but the challenge is always to work with the best but one of the things is that a designer as as as good or as bad as the client is if the client has a wishin if the client has a perspective is the client has a canvas that the designer will deliver you know a designer will falter a designer will collapse a designer will do muddle-headed designs if the client does not have a clarity of mind and wishin and therefore to my mind there is there is a two-way process in the process of design it's very much like what governance and India has become today it's it's about a two-way interaction between the design and the and and the the client who's driving and therefore you need to learn from the designer you need to constantly evolve you need to constantly grow and you need to constantly tell the designer that you want to evolve in this manner and therefore the designer must constant constantly keep making you grow as an individual in terms of your accent in terms of your value systems and and in terms of your branding process and that is very necessary so to my mind the designer and the client relationship is there you need is very special it's a very bonded relationship and therefore both learn from each other as they grow along what is the nucleus of growth for these new cities that have you that you have planned I mean why are people gonna move to these cities apart in the great infrastructure there you know unlike the unlike the West in India much of India's growth is being driven by domestic demand and that's being driven by domestic demand simply because India is passing through a window demographic transition which rarely ever happens in history I mean seventy two percent of our population is full of youngsters like you below the age of 32 and therefore while Europe and America is an aging population eight thousand Americans retiring a day 8500 Germans retiring a day Indians are getting younger and younger as with every passing day and therefore there's a domestic demand which is driving growth in India every single in structure project that we are group which we are creating for 2020 2030 is being filled up in 2012-2013 there's no place for manufacturing today in India now even he has to grow at rates of eight to nine percent per annum which is India's challenge the manufacturing sector must grow at rates of fifteen to sixteen percent per annum year after year year after year to create a hundred million jobs and that is the challenge for India fifteen to sixteen percent growth of manufacturing sector through innovation through creativity through labor intensive pneus over the next three decades to create jobs for the young people otherwise you'll have a revolution in india so manufacturing where is the space for manufactory there is more space and therefore you need to create manufacturing cities in India you need to create industrial cities but when you create industrial cities it's like creating a new mumbai mumbai was a textile city how did mumbai evolved it was a textile city workers came in young managers came in their wives came in so you needed hospitals you need hospitality you need roads you need a lifestyle and therefore when you create new cities you create city is not with the 20 your perspective which ossetia you create cities with a hundred your perspective your canvas must be hundred years

2021-01-10 00:19

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