Hi. I'm Rick Steves back with more of the best of Europe and this time we're in the very southwest. Tip of Great Britain it's Lands End and we're exploring England's, Cornwall, thanks, for joining us. Set. On a rocky peninsula, Cornwall, is a fascinating, land it's a pirate's punch of Celtic culture legends. Of smugglers, and mining, heritage it. Is a rugged appeal that makes it a favorite among English holiday goers. Will. Marvel at some staggering, scenery, follow. A miner deep into a tin mine and then, will eat his lunch will. Enjoy a sublime, beach. Chase. Blennies, in a Victorian, rock pool and then, dine on bigger fish in the. Vast and dramatic, reaches of Dartmoor will chase wild ponies. Ponder. Our own private, stone circle, and summit. A big, rock. The. Island of Great Britain is made of England in the celtic lands of Scotland and Wales in the, southwest is another historically, Celtic land Cornwall. After. Exploring, Cornwall's, Penwith, Peninsula, from a home base in Penzance, we'll, venture north to Tintagel, castle and finish, in neighboring Dartmoor. Along. With its ethnic, cousins, Brittany, Ireland, Wales and Scotland Cornwall. Was part of a Celtic Crescent, that nearly circles, England the, Cornish people spoke, their own language, which thrived for centuries, mining. And fishing were long the dominant, industries but, today tourism. Drives the economy. Cornwall. With a half million residents, is a county, of England unlike, the more autonomous, Wales in Scotland, but. Many native-born locals. Consider, themselves Cornish. First British. Second. The. Area is packed with ancient sites, historic. Monuments, and, peaceful. Farm Hamlet's. The. Gulf Stream brings, warm subtropical, weather. To Cornwall making, it perfect, for Gardens. Walking. And. Basking. On the beach. Will. Visit the region's ultimate, tourist trap first the very tip of England Lands. End. Upon. Arrival, visitors, pass through a gauntlet, of tourist shops. It's. A popular, day out for families the, goal, a point. Where you really are at the end of England this, was once considered the end of the known world, the last land to be seen by departing, ships. After. Gazing at the sea and guessing how far away from home you are get, the answer for a price at the touristy, signpost, photo op a. Weather-beaten. Bluff, just a couple miles away provides, the same lands and thrill without the crowd its. Cape Cornwall. To. Be sure we know about special, places like this and understand. Them I'm joined, by my friend and fellow tour guide Tim. F, yes. This little church goes back to the 6th century just, imagine, a Celtic priests living in there with a just. A little altar, and a fireplace, that's all he needed a short. Climb leads to the summit of this connoisseurs, Lands End. Here. You can sit with the sound of the wind and the cry of the gulls. Enjoying. The meditative, view I like to ponder how this small island has, had an impact far, beyond its shores. From. The start Cornwall's economy, was based on Tim, as, far back as ancient times, Greek, and Roman traders, traveled, all the way to Cornwall, for Tim you. See an important, step in the evolution of civilization was. The ability to mix tin and copper to, make bronze and when, people entered the Bronze Age they could make better tools and stronger. Weapons. Tin. Mining was the dominant, Cornwall, industry, well into, modern times this. Evocative. Coast is dotted with 19th, century Industrial, Age ruins, these. Desolate, engine, houses once pumped water out of the shafts, so they could mine a half mile down and then under, the seabed far out to sea, the. Ground here is honeycombed, with mine tunnels, in at. A day there, were hundreds, of tin mines in Cornwall. The. Industry peaked about 200 years ago with the Industrial, Revolution back. Then the demand for tin was huge, and mines like these were booming making, Cornwall, one of England's wealthiest counties. Ruins. Look almost ancient. But it's easy to forget that less than a hundred years ago thousands, of workers spent, most of their waking hours in these, crumbling, buildings supporting. Their families, but. Cornwall's, glory days of tin past the, iconic, smokestacks, today are the dramatic, remnants, of Cornwall's, now dead tin mining industry, which just couldn't, compete with cheap, tin from abroad. Along. With these old buildings another, reminder, of the mining heritage is the tin workers simple, lunch the Cornish, pasty, so, this would be the classic miners, lefty Tuesday yeah the Cornish pasty, so, you'd hold, it on the crimped edge around here like this and the idea was that if, you did have arsenic on your hands and you, would leave it on the crusts it's cuz there's no way to wash your hands when you're mining you cannot come out of the mind and you're gonna eat and you're hungry yeah absolutely so this is a pasty.
How Do you Proust it pasty, pasty. No past a ste all right yes, I eat away mmm. Generally, what you put inside of a pasty. You've. Got steak or onion. Potato. And. Turnip, or sweet as we call it so, any bakery around here would serve these would be a great takeout, meal for a weary traveler yeah, absolutely, there, are thousands, of these made every day got the original takeout, food and Cornwall I mean 200 years ago for the miners and today yeah, Fowler's. The. Last tin mine to close is now open, to visitors, dedicated. To telling the miners story. The. Giver mine closed in 1990. It. Represents, the last hurrah not only of Cornish tin mining but innocence of Britain's, industrial age. Exploring. It you'll gain an appreciation for. The simple, yet noble, life of miners. Though. Closed, for decades it feels as though the miners could show up at any time, to clock in the. Blasting schedule, was a reminder, that punctuality, in, the mines was a matter of life and death, the. Miners lockers, were left just the way they were on the day the mine closed, with the miners believing, that somehow. They'd, be back. Photos. Humanized, the plight of individuals. Who lost their livelihoods. They. Remind us that when, economics, change and an industry dies it devastates, families and. Entire, communities. In. A huge structure, nicknamed, the mill the stone was crushed to extract the, tin. The. Miners brought in tons and tons of, raw ore which was put into big drums like this which would then tumble, and with the help of metal balls like this it would break the ore into smaller and smaller pebbles. The, noise must, have been deafening, in here you'll. See how a vast room full of shaking, tables like giant, machines panning, for gold separated. The tin from the waste tin. And other heavy metals are the dark material at the back while, the lighter waste slowly, shakes forward, with. 90 tables shaking each, day hundreds, of tons of rock gradually. Gave up a few, tons of coveted, tip, for. The finale of your visit you slip on a coat Danah hard hat and head, both underground. And back, in time deep into one of the original eighteenth-century. Mines. The. Shafts, narrow and low give you a sense of the difficult, life of miners and their perilous, working conditions. Former. Mine employees, serve as guides and are happy to tell the story here, we are we're in a section of hundreds of 250. Years old approximately, this. Mine itself, didn't work under the ocean but a lot of mines in this district, this isn't just mining district went. Under the ocean for, sometimes, a distance for a mile and a half, ten mining is hard rock mining where you look for a load and then follow veins of tin through the surrounding rock and once they establish will, attend is then they, then, work upwards through the earth and downwards, through the earth extracting. That plane from the room even under the sea if they even under the sea yeah so if they took a hundred tons of rock.
Out Of the mine how much tin would they hope to find just, one ton what, that's, hard work it is extremely, over Cornish. Mining had a diaspora. In the 1800's. With large numbers, of skilled, miners emigrating. The Cornish miner has, moved. All over the world from. Canada and North America, Mexico down, into South America New. Zealand, Australia South, Africa. Even. Cuba, this, hundreds. Of thousands, of people around the planet now that are directly, related to those Cornish, miners who, took, their skills with them and, in fact there was a definition, and it still holds true today really, largely that, a mine. Is a hole in the ground with, a Cornishmen, at the bottom. For. Me the top charms of Cornwall are gathered at its extreme, western, tip that Penwith Peninsula. Touring. This unforgettable, 30, mile loop features, rugged, windblown, scenery. Content. Cows ignore, the views, little. Hamlet's with their stony barns are just going through another century. Skinny. Country, lanes are lined by towering hedgerows. I'm glad. Tim's doing the driving you. Can hear the branches, scraping both sides of the car at the same time. The. Winding hedgerows, built before motor traffic are an icon, of Cornwall while, they may look soft, they're hard as rock. These. Date back to medieval times when, farmers cleaned up their fields by stacking rocks to make walls lining, the lanes they, have a stone frame are filled with earth and then are overgrown with vegetation. Those. Who get out of the car and hike are richly, rewarded, walking. All or even part of the southwest coast path you'll, enjoy memorable, moments around every, corner. This. Coastline had more than its share of unscrupulous. Trade, there, were pirates, mostly, state-sanctioned, Buccaneers. Plundering, the coast of France and French shipping and there. Were smugglers, dealing, in highly taxed contraband, like spices and booze. Tough. Little Namur Nicole was a favorite for smugglers, you, can imagine them quietly, beaching, their boats by moonlight. Eventually. The cold went legit with, the granite trade. Imagine. That work involved, in querying, and then shipping slabs, of granite from, this tiny Bay. The. Massive embankment, of the River Thames back in London didn't, just happen it, was made from huge, stones, quarried, from places, like this and then, shipped. Nearby. Hides another, coastal, delight Penn Birth Cove a tiny, fishing port it's, capstan, or winch still, hauls a few tough little boats up the cobbled, landing, the. Stones are scarred by grooves worn, by generations. Of hard fishing, I find. It so evocative, with the capstan, and these old fishing boats when you see this port what do you think. I, mean. This is going, back to the time when pilchards, were a very important, part of of, the Cornish economy, I mean all around the Cornish coast they were as. Many pilchard, a little cultured coves as, they could squeeze in what's, the culture, well pilchards are large sardine, can where they important they were a huge part of the diet, of the Cornish people and a big part of the economy of Cornwall for centuries whether you were a farmer a fisherman, or a miner it was a big, part of your diet how you survived the winter so, what would it be like if you lived here back when pilchards, were the the. Key, to surviving, the winter well, you'd have a Heuer up on the cliff and his. Job was to really look to see if the sea turned purple if the sea turned purple and the poachers were coming in and he, would call with his big trumpet, shouted. Heaver Hever which was the cry of the fish and then. They would all come running down and push. The big Seine boats out and pull the mile-long net out and then, everybody, would come down and help out and get all five million fish in one net was the most the most they ever caught with some eyes once and it really helped them get, through the winter yeah they needed to catch those fish if they missed it they, would possibly stop. Hiking. That Penrith peninsula can be like exploring, an open-air, archaeological. Museum it's, dotted with stony souvenirs, from around 2000. BC stone. Circles, hosted, ritual, gatherings, and functioned, as celestial, calendars. These. Stones were covered, with turf likely, a burial, mound or tomb of some local chief and weathered.
Crosses, Helped guide Irish, pilgrims, traversing, Cornwall, on their Trek to Spain. A, hidden. Surprise on this otherwise, rugged, coast is the delightful beach at Port Colonel. With. Its graceful arc and golden, sand it seems to have been imported from some faraway tropical. Paradise, in. Fact. If you try hard to forget you're at such a northern, latitude, and pretend, the water isn't so cold you could swear you're, in the French Riviera. It's. A hit with both parents savoring. A hard earned break and their, frolicking, children, enjoying. The surf. But. Running below the sand unnoticed. By these holiday makers is a historic. Cable, it, leads to a fascinating, Museum, all about the Telegraph. Port. Colonel was strategic, for its Telegraph station the largest in the world back, in the 1920s. The, British ruled a global, Empire and needed, a way to communicate with its far-flung colonies. It, developed, a way to send Morse code messages, through cables, across the seas, exhibits. Of early teletype, machines explain, these significant. Technological, strides. In what's nicknamed, the Victorian, Internet. This. Is really important, in 1869. It took six weeks to get a message from here to India then, after they laid the cables in 1870. It took nine minutes, eventually. A hundred. And eighty thousand, miles of cable like this was laid on ocean, floors across, the planet and this, little port was, its hub. But. Today Porter, knows big drop is a dramatic open-air. Theater, the. Minik theater is carved out of a rocky cliff and gorgeously. Landscaped. Built. In the 1930s. By the visionary, theater lover Rowena, Cade its stage is perched hundreds, of feet over the sea a visit. By day lets you relax in the garden, like setting, with its exotic plants, thriving, in the subtropical. Climate. If. The weather's fine grab a grassy seat and go English enjoy. A cream tea picnic, style where. You've also got your jam on first and you've got to put the cream on the top when you're in Cornwall. It's. A lot of cream oh yeah. Just, a little dollop on the top at that that's exactly, how you're supposed to have how you do it yeah you are one of my favorite guides. I'm. Gonna finish this one off, hmm you. Can watch the seabirds, gannets. Glide looking, for a fresh fish lunch when. They spot one they die for it and hit the water at 60 miles an hour. I'm. Staying for tonight's performance.
Throughout. The season theater, lovers enjoy inexpensive. Plays in this, unforgettable. Setting. The. Adorable, little port of mouseau, is famous, for smuggling, and for, fishing it's, cute harbour is protected, from the wild sea with an entrance narrow, as a mouse hole due. To the dramatic tides, the boats here are designed to be stranded in the mud and stay upright, until the water returns with the next high tide. Modern. Beach fun today but I get a sense this has been a protected harbor for centuries yeah. We stood on a harbor wall here which dates back to the 14th century and much. Of the village is the same a lot of it was destroyed then by the Spanish, Armada in 1595. So is it Spanish Armada out there lobbying, cannonballs. 1595. Yep, they rebuilt in, the 17th, century, but you can still find cannibals and some of us in some of the houses now. These. Days the town handles, its flood of summer tourists, and day-trippers beautifully. It's. A hit with visitors and, hearty English holiday goers gather, along the embankment, to avoid the wind and catch, the Sun. Nearby. Is a rock pool built a century, ago for Victorian, kids to enjoy the sea life stranded, there with each low tide. Chasing. Fast crabs and darting, blennies, delights, children, to this day. The. Southwest coast path laces, together the entire coastline, of the Penwith, Peninsula, often, becoming an easy seaside, stroll. Standing. Dramatically. Just off the coast is st. Michael's mount this. Rock island has been inhabited for over 1,500. Years once. A Benedictine, monastery it was later a fortified, castle, and eventually, a stately, home and through, the centuries people, have minded, the tides just, as tourists do today as they, venture across, this causeway. The. Seaside trail broadens, to a promenade, as it passes Penzance, along, the leading part of the peninsula, today's. Penzance, is a blue-collar, transportation. Hub with a hardscrabble edge. Its. Facades, while, impressive, back in the Victorian age are a bit shabby now rough. And real Penzance, is my favorite home base in the area entire. Streets, are lined with small guest houses and B&Bs. It's. An enjoyable place to come home to at the end of a busy sightseeing. Day. Tonight, we're dining out and around here seafoods, a good bet. Throughout. England these days young, restaurant, tours and creative, chefs are putting Britain's, reputation for, boring, food to rest. The. Service, is friendly and. The. Atmosphere, is casual, and fun. We're. Enjoying a sampler plate of today's catch and for. Our main course it's hake. Lobster. And. Happen. All. Locally. Cod. An. Hour's, drive north is, Tintagel. Castle a legendary. Home of king arthur, rocky. Remote, and romantic. The ruins while, scant are strikingly. Situated. As. You. Explore appreciate. The naturally, fortified, easily, defensible position. Of this rock top castle. The. Real King Arthur, if he actually existed, was supposedly, born, here and ruled his lands from this desolate, outpost. Recent. Digs do, indicate, that this place was a curiously. Important, center of trade back, in early, medieval times. While. The popular, tales of Camelot, are pure fantasy they. May have been based on a real person well. There's no physical record, of a king Arthur experts. Have reason to believe that a ruler, by that name probably, lived in this area back in the 6th century a. Short. Drive further north takes us out of Cornwall and into the neighboring county of Devon where we venture into remote, and windswept, Dartmoor.
Perched. On the edge of the moor the tiny town of Chegg verd is an easy home base for exploring Dartmoor. The. Small town atmosphere here, makes you feel like you've stepped into a time warp, it. Has a classic, English village, feel, with. A picturesque, Church, and cemetery, and cozy, pubs that double, as Inns for hikers to spend the night. One. Of England's most popular, national parks Dartmoor. Is one of the few truly wild places left, in this densely, populated country. A moor. Is characterized, by open land with scrubby, vegetation, England's. Moors are vast medieval, Commons rare, places, where all can pass anyone. Can graze their livestock and in the case of Dartmoor ponies, run, wild. Dartmoor. Sits on a granite plateau and occasionally. Bare granite, peaks cult tours break, through the Heather. Rising. Like lonesome, watchtowers, these distinctive. Landmarks are the goal of popular, hikes. Hey. Tour is the most famous of these rocks for. The Tenderfoot the climb to its summit can be a challenge. It's. Not illa copy time but, it's hard to beat that king, of the mountain feeling, and the, rewarding, views that come with it a. Well-planned. Walk through the Moors rewards, day hikers with vivid, memories, stone. Slab clapper, bridges some, medieval and some even ancient remind. Hikers that for thousands, of years humans. Have trod these same paths and forded. These same streams. Tall. Stones guided, early travelers, this. One erected. By pagans, long before Christianity arrived, was later carved into a cross. The. Iconic, ponies of Dartmoor, run wild, their. Ancestors, were the working horses of the local miners. Living. In the harsh conditions of the moor these ponies, are a hardy breed known, for their stamina, today. Their beloved, among hikers for, the romance they bring to the otherwise, stark, terrain. Of. The. Hundreds of Neolithic ruins that dot the Dartmoor landscape. Thus coral stone circle, is my favorite, tranquil. And nearly forgotten erected. Some four thousand years ago by mysterious, people for mysterious, reasons it's, yours, alone, the way a stone circle should be it's. Just you and your imagination, enjoy. The quiet, ponder. The 40 centuries of people, who've made this enchanting. Landscape, their home and the. Wisdom of today's English to protect it and keep, it pristine. From. Land's End to the wild wonders of Dartmoor I hope you've enjoyed our swing through Cornwall, and the southwest, of England thanks. For joining us I'm Rick, Steves until, next time keep, on travelin. You. Can see a Gannet with two black eyes. Simon. We witness please. Things, I do for you. Yeah.