Karpacz Tourism in Poland
car packs is a spa town and ski resort in jelenia gura county lower salesian voivo chip southwestern poland and one of the most important centers for mountain hiking and skiing including ski jumping its population is about 4500 carpax is situated in the karkanasi mountains a resort with increasing importance for tourism as an alternative to the alps carpax is located at 480 to 885 meters above sea level south of carpax on the border to the czech republic there is mount sneshka sneezka since 2020 the town has been hosting the annual international economic forum history the first settlements in area of carpax are noted by the official website of the city as being of probable celtic origin and date to the 4th or 3rd century bc when they inhabited the region as part of gold digging taking place in the area the area was part of medieval poland after the establishment of the state in the 10th century in the early 12th century the area was generally uninhabited as mentioned in the oldest polish chronicle gesta principalum the first mention of permanent location within the current boundaries of the town is dated to the beginning of 15th century and connected to the destruction of a village called bronio whose inhabitants moved to settle the area currently located at the altitude of town's railway station the settlement was mentioned around the year 1599 because of lead and iron mining in the region it was then part of the habsburg ruled bohemian crown during the 30 years war many czech protestants settled at the site of today's town in 1742 it was annexed by prussia and subsequently it was part of germany between 1871 and 1945. since the construction of the settlement's first railway connection in 1895 its history was connected with the development of metallurgy industries and with the progress of tourism after the defeat of nazi germany in world war ii in 1945 it became again part of poland in accordance to the potsdam agreement the german population was expelled from the village between 1945 and 1947. the town was subsequently repopulated with poles who in turn were expelled from former eastern poland annexed by the soviet union and eventually renamed carpax in 1946.
it was granted town rights in 1959. tourist attractions and carpax corny at gravity hill is located where bottles appear to roll uphill there is also a norwegian stave church moved here from vang norway in the mid 19th century tourists very often choose to go hiking on local mountain trails gravity hill a gravity hill also known as a magnetic hill mystery hill mystery spot gravity road or anti-gravity hill is a place where the layout of the surrounding land produces an optical illusion making a slight downhill slope appear to be an uphill slope thus a car left out of gear will appear to be rolling uphill against gravity there are hundreds of recognized gravity hills around the world the slope of gravity hills is an optical illusion although sites are often accompanied by claims that magnetic or supernatural forces are at work the most important factor contributing to the illusion is a completely or mostly obstructed horizon without a horizon it becomes difficult to judge the slope of a surface as a reliable reference is missing objects which one would normally assume to be more or less perpendicular to the ground such as trees may actually be leaning offsetting the visual reference the illusion is similar to the ames room in which objects can also appear to roll against gravity the opposite phenomenon an uphill road that appears flat is known in bicycle racing as a false flat stave church's stave church is a medieval wooden christian church building once common in northwestern europe the name derives from the building structure of post and lintel construction a type of timber framing where the load bearing or pine posts are called staffer in old norse two related church building types also named for their structural elements the post church and palisade church are often called stave churches originally much more widespread most of the surviving stave churches are in norway the only remaining medieval stave churches outside norway are those of circa 1500 head-aired stave church in sweden and one norwegian stave church relocated in 1842 to contemporary car packs and the karkanasi mountains of poland one other church the anglo-saxon greenstead church in england exhibits many similarities with a stave church but is generally considered a palisade church construction archaeological excavations have shown that stave churches are descended from palisade constructions and from later churches with earthbound posts similar palisade constructions are known from buildings from the viking age logs were split in two halves set or rammed into the earth and given a roof this proved a simple but very strong form of construction if said in gravel the wall could last many decades even centuries an archaeological excavation in lund uncovered the postholes of several such churches in post churches the walls were supported by sills leaving only the posts earthbound such churches are easy to spot at archaeological sites as they leave very distinct holes where the posts were once placed occasionally some of the wood remains making it possible to date the church more accurately using radiocarbon dating or dendrochronology under the urn's stave church remains of two such churches have been found with christian graves discovered beneath the oldest church structure a single church of palisade construction has been discovered under the hems stave church the next design phase resulted from the observation that earthbound posts were susceptible to humidity causing them to rot away over time to prevent this the posts were placed on top of large stones significantly increasing their lifespans the stave church in roald dahl is believed to be of this type in later churches the posts were set on a raised sill frame resting on stone foundations this is the stave church in its most mature form it is now common to group the churches into two categories the first without freestanding posts often referred to as type a and the second with a raised roof and freestanding internal posts usually called type b those with the raised roof type b are often further divided into two subgroups the first of these the cowponger group have a whole arcade row of posts and intermediate posts along the sides and details that mimic stone capitals these churches give an impression of a basilica the other subgroup is the borgen group in these churches the posts are connected halfway up with one or two horizontal double pincer beams with semicircular indentations clasping the row of posts from both sides cross braces are inserted between the posts and the upper and lower pincer beams forming a very rigid interconnection and resembling the triforium of stone basilicas this design made it possible to omit the freestanding lower part of intermediate posts in some churches only the four corner posts remain many stave churches had or still have outer galleries or ambulatories around their whole perimeters loosely connected to the plank walls these probably serve to protect the church from a harsh climate and for processions single native church type a at the base of type of churches there are four heavy sill beams on a low foundation of stones these are interconnected in the corner notch forming a rigid sill frame the corner posts or staves are cross cut at the lower end and fit over the corner notches and cover them protecting them from moisture on top of the sill beam is a groove into which the lower ends of the wall planks fit the last wall plank is wedge-shaped and rammed into place when the wall is filled in with planks the frame is completed by a wall plate with a groove on the bottom holding the top ends of the wall planks the whole structure consists of frames a sill frame resting on the stone foundation and the four wall frames made up of sills corner posts and wall plate the wall plates support the roof trusses consisting of a pair of principal rafters and an additional pair of intersecting scissor rafters for lateral bracing additional wooden brackets are inserted between the rafters every piece is locked into position by other pieces making for a very rigid construction yet all points otherwise susceptible to the harsh weather are covered the single native church has a square nave and a narrower square choir this type of stave church was common at the beginning of the 12th century the long church has a rectangular plan with knave and choir of the same width the knave will usually take up two-thirds of the whole length this type was common at the end of the 13th century the center post church has a single central post reaching all the way up to and connected to the roof construction but the roof is a simple hipped one without the raised central part of the type b churches this variation on the common type of church found in numadahl and halingdal dates to around twelve hundred single native churches in norway grip haltdalen underdoll heddle rhinely idesborg rolog and garmo the only remaining church of this type outside norway is the head-aired church in sweden which shows similarities with the church at haltdalen church with a raised roof type b on the stone foundation four huge ground beams are placed like a sign their ends protruding one to two meters from the lap joint where they intersect the ends of these beams support the sills of the outer walls forming a separate horizontal frame the tall internal posts are placed on the internal frame of ground beams and carry the main roof above the central nave on the outer frame of sills rest the main wall planks carrying the roof over the pentas or isles surrounding the central space the roof thus slopes down in two steps as in a basilica the tall internal posts are interconnected with brackets and also connected to the outer walls with aisle rafters creating a laterally rigid construction closer to the top of the posts shorter sills inserted between them support the upper wall on top of the post's wall plates support the roof trusses similar to those of the single nave churches the cowponger group consists of cowponger urns hoppersted and lum the borgen group consists of borgend goal hegg loman ringabu and this form of a church can also be recognized from the holes which remain from earlier earthbound post churches built on the same sites little is known about what these older churches actually looked like or how they were constructed as they were all destroyed or replaced many centuries ago construction techniques palisade worked the oldest technique is often called palisade work and was a self-supporting wall construction with densely placed earthen pillars or planks which enclosed a room and at the same time carried the roof later split logs were used which gave the walls a flat in sight and the edges could be leveled or fitted with tongue and groove palisade churches have not been found in norway to prevent early decay the posts or planks were tart and the lower ends were charred by burning the palisade rows were often placed in ditches filled with stone it was long thought that this technique disappeared before the turn of the last millennium but new research shows that it was in use right up to the 12th century the only structure in this technique that has survived into our time is a wall in the middle section of greenstead church in england this led to this church being for a long time considered the oldest wooden structure in europe a common dating of the church was about the year 845 but modern gender chronological dating estimates the church's year of construction to the period just after the year 1053. the post technique by lifting the pole planks up from the ground and placing them on sleepers clamped between more powerful corner or intermediate posts the risk of rot damage was reduced thinner materials could then be used in the complementary parts of the construction earthen piles of coarse round timber could stand for a relatively long time before rotting they may have been scorched at the lower end to avoid premature decay post holes often with remnants of the former pillars have been found under or near several stave churches and in places where legends say that there must have been churches remains of approximately 25 pillar buildings have been identified in norway and in direct traces of seven to eight more remains of pillar churches are also found under stone churches such as mayor and kensarvik many of the earliest churches in norway were built using this technique but no such buildings have survived it is an open question whether limited life was the reason why they were replaced by real stave churches with sleepers or whether there were other reasons some of the older materials found in several of the stave churches are thought to originate from such early pillar churches in particular at the irn's stave church in leicester where many building parts with wooden sheds in the urn style must have belonged to an older church it has now been proven that the reused building parts originally belong to the current church's forerunner dendrochronologically dated to the period 1070-1080 however this was not a post-church but a real stave church where corner poles and wall planks stood on sleepers hack and christie assumed that the post-construction fell out of use because the posts rotted from below jorgen h jencenius believes that archaeological material does not provide unequivocal support for christie's hypothesis a change in size or transition to a stone church may also explain why excavated pillars fell out of use rolldoll stave church may have had some pillars set in the ground until 1913. in loms stave church the stone foundations have been laid approximately directly over the refilled postholes apart from different foundation methods jencinius believes that the pillar churches were essentially similar to stave churches stave work of buildings from the middle ages with standing timber and load-bearing structures only the churches in the last developed method of construction the stave have been left standing in our time by lifting the entire structure up on stone foundations and placing the poles on sleepers the life of the structure was significantly extended the technique was developed as early as the 11th century but it has only been proven in the forerunner of the current stave church this was also a real stave church since both the corner stakes and the tiles have stood on sleepers that were reused as foundations for the existing church stone as a base for poles was used as early as roman times and additional walls and sleepers may have been used from the four hundreds and six hundreds size laurence dietrichson believed that the stave churches were originally small and only later built with larger dimensions he believed that the background for this was the construction technique he points out that the youngest churches in the moor type are the largest he calculated the ground plan and area for 79 churches and the nine largest were all in sunmore with joran ford volda and nortel of over 280 square meters this is three times larger than for example earns and hoppers did according to dietrichson the large size of the stave churches in sunmore were partly a result of later expansions he estimated the cross arms of volda stave church at 7.3 times 6 meters joran ford's stave church was a half-cross church with only one cross arm measuring 7.9 times 9.1 meters the first stave church had cross arms of 7.9 times 6.7 meters after expansion
dietrichson was unsure whether the cross arms and the more churches were generally added in the lath construction or whether it was a medieval stave construction he concluded that several were originally listed as cruciform churches in stakes including harry volda vatni and orsta for some other churches contemporary sources say that the cross arms were later added to the lumber according to hack and christie these churches of the moore type had a simpler construction and were both larger and longer than the other types rohr hoglett estimated that most of the medieval norwegian stave churches were simple single nave buildings and most were relatively small hoglet called these the ordinary norwegian stave church history stave churches were once common in northern europe in norway alone it was thought about 1 000 were built recent research has increased this estimate and it is now believed there may have been closer to 2000. norway most of the surviving stave churches in norway were built between 1150 and 1350. stave churches older than the 1100s are known only from written sources or from archaeological excavations but written sources are sparse and difficult to interpret only 271 masonry churches were constructed in norway during the same period of which 160 still exist while in sweden and denmark there were 900 and 1800 masonry churches respectively frost stating law and gulating law rules about corner posts show that the stave church was a standard church building in norway even though the catholic church preferred stone all wooden churches in norway before the reformation were constructed with staves log building is younger than stave building in norway and was introduced in residential buildings around year 1000 stave building is not influenced by the log technique the word stave church is unknown in old norse presumably because there were no other types of wooden churches when norway's churches after the reformation were constructed from logs there was a need for a separate term for the older churches in written sources from the middle ages there is a clear distinction between staffer and ely or vaguely however in documents from the 1600 to 1700s stave was also used for wall boards or panels emil ekkoff and his spence gustavrakore also included wood framed church buildings without posts according to norway's oldest written laws and old norwegian homily book the consecration of the church was valid as long as the four corner posts were standing one of the sermons in the old homily book is known as the stave church sermon the sermon dates from around 1100 and was presumably performed at consecrations or on their anniversaries the sermon text is a theological interpretation of the building elements in the church it names most of the building elements in the stave church and can be a source of terminology and technique for instance the sermon says the four corner posts of the church are a symbol for the four gospels because their teachings are the strongest supports within the whole of christianity church building was mentioned in the gulating sleven which was written down in the 1000s in the chapter on christianity the 12th article states if one man builds a church either lendman does it or a farmer or whoever builds a church shall keep the church in the plot in good condition but if the church breaks down and corner posts fall then he shall bring timber to the plot before 12 months if not he will pay three marks in punishment to the bishop and bring timber and rebuild the church anyway in norway stave churches were gradually replaced many survived until the 19th century when a substantial number were destroyed today 28 historical stave churches remain standing in norway state churches were particularly common in less populated areas in high valleys and forestland and in fisherman's villages on islands and minor villages along fjords by about 1800 322 stave churches were still known in norway most of them in sparsely populated areas if the main church was masonry the annex church could be a stave church masonry churches were mostly built in towns along the coast and in rich agricultural areas in trundelog and eastern norway as well as in the larger parishes in fjord districts in western norway no new churches were built in norway during the 1400s and 1500s norway's stave churches largely disappeared until 1700 and were replaced by log buildings several stave churches were redesigned or enlarged using different techniques during 1600 to 1700. for instance
flesberg stave church was converted into a cruciform church partly in log construction according to dietrichson most stave churches were dismantled to make room for a new church partly because the old church had become too small for the congregation and partly because the stave church was in poor condition fire storm avalanche and decay were other reasons in 1650 there were about 270 stave churches left in norway and in the next hundred years 136 of these disappeared there were still 95 stave churches in 1800 while over 200 former stave churches were still known by name or in written sources from 1850 to 1885 32 stave churches disappeared since then only the phantom stave church has been lost heddle stave church was the first stave church described in a scholarly publication when johannes flinto wrote an essay in samlinger till debt norski folks sprog og history the book also printed flinto's drawings of the facade the ground floor and the floor plan the first known architectural drawing of a stave church other countries the number of stave churches constructed in iceland and the rest of europe is unknown some believe they were the first type of church to be constructed in scandinavia however the post churches are an older type although the difference between the two is slight a stave church has a lower construction set on a frame whereas a post church has earthbound posts in sweden the stave churches were considered obsolete in the middle ages and were replaced in denmark traces of post churches have been found at several locations and there are also parts still in existence from some of them a plank of one such church was found in jutland the plank is now on display at the national museum of denmark in copenhagen and an attempt at reconstructing the church is a feature display at the mosgaard museum near orhus marks created by several old post churches have also been found at the old stone church in geling in sweden the medieval headaired stave church was constructed c 1500 at the same location as a previous stave church other notable places are maria minor church in lond with its traces of a post-church with palisades and some old parts of hems stave church on gotland in skein alone there were around 300 such churches when adam of bremen visited denmark in the first half of the 11th century but how many of those were stave churches or post-churches as unknown in england there is one similar church of saxon origin with much debate as to whether it is a stave church or predates them this is the greenstead church in essex general consensus categorizes it as saxon type a another church bears similarities to stave churches the medieval stone church of saint mary in kilpek in herefordshire it features a number of dragon heads in germany there is one stone church with a motif depicting a dragon similar to those often seen on norwegian stave churches and on surviving artifacts from denmark and gotland whether this decoration can be attributed to cultural similarities or whether it indicates similar construction methods in germany has sparked controversy between 1950 and 1970 post holes from older buildings were discovered under lom stave church as well as under masonry churches such as kinsarvik church and this discovery was an important contribution to understanding the origin of stave churches post holes were first identified during excavations in earned stave church influences laurence dietrichson in his book donorski stafgricker claimed that the stave church is a brilliant translation of the romanesque basilica from stone to wood dietrichson claimed that type b displays an influence from early christian and roman basilicas the style was assumed to be transferred via anglo-saxon and irish architecture where only the particular roof construction was local dietrichson emphasized the clear story arcades and capitals the basilica theory was introduced by n nicolason and mind as mayor kerr af middle-alderance-kunststein norwich nicholasen wrote our stave churches are now the only remaining of its kind and according to the sparse records and known circumstances it appears that nothing similar existed except perhaps in britain and ireland nikolasen further claimed that the layout and design may have been inspired by byzantine architecture nikolasen wrote all facts suggest that the stave churches like the masonry churches and all medieval architecture in western europe originated from the roman basilica this theory was further developed by anders bugg and rohr hoglet peter anker believed that the influence from foreign masonry architecture was primarily in decorative details per jonas nordhagen does not reject the basilica theory but suggests development along two paths and that the basilica was a development towards larger and technically more sophisticated churches the main progressive path according to nordhagen lead to torpo and borgand folklore and circumstantial evidence seem to suggest that stave churches were built upon old indigenous norse worship sites the huff dietrichson believed that the stave churches were closely connected to the hoff and the hoff theory attracted interest in the 1930s and 1940s the theory assumed that the hofs had a square raised roof supported by four columns during christianization of norway local chiefs were forced to either dismantle the hofs or to convert hofs into churches bug and norberg schultz accordingly claimed that there is no reason to believe that the last hofs and the first churches had any major differences this assumption has been rejected by archaeological evidence several times in the case of iceland by age roussel olaf olsen described the huff merely as function related to ordinary buildings on major farms if the hoff was a particular building they remain to be identified according to olsen olson rejected the hoff theory nicolae nicolasen also concluded that there is not a single known case of a hof that was converted to a church lack of historical evidence for hofsa's buildings undermines the hoff theory nicolasan also introduced the community center hypothesis which argued that hofs were destroyed in churches constructed on the same convenient location for the local community location near a previous half would then be a coincidence according to nicolason pope gregory the first encouraged augustine of canterbury to reuse pre-christian temples but this had little relevance for norway according to nicolason jan brendlesmo in his dissertation concluded that churches were often established on major farms or farms of local chiefs and close to feasting halls or graveyards stave churches sometimes appear to have built upon or used materials from old pagan worship sites and are considered to be the best evidence for the existence of norse pagan temples and the best guide as to what they looked like the layout of the churches is believed to have mimicked old pagan temples in design and was possibly designed in order to adhere to old norse cosmological beliefs especially as some churches were built around a central point like a world tree stave churches were also often located near or in the site of large natural formations which also had a significant role in norse paganism thus also suggesting a form of continuity through placement and symbolism furthermore dragon's heads and other clear mythological symbolism suggests the cultural blending of norse mythological beliefs and christianity in a non-contradictory synthesis owing to this evidence newer research has suggested that christianity was introduced into norway much earlier than was previously assumed architecture and decoration even though the wooden churches had structural differences they give a recognizable general impression formal differences may hide common features of their planning while apparently similar buildings may turn out to have their structural elements organized completely differently despite this certain basic principles must have been common to all types of building basic geometrical figures numbers that were easy to work with one are just a few length units and simple ratios and perhaps proportions were among the theoretical aids all builders inherited the specialist was the man who knew a particular type of building so well that he could systematize its elements in a slightly different way from previous building designs thus carrying developments a stage further exposing the timber frame on the interior and or exterior of the structures is seen to release its matrix of timber members and its capacity to contribute architectural expression to buildings the matrix forming blinds in space has an expressive potential that includes the capacity to delineate proportion direct eye movement suggests spatial enclosure create patterning permit transparency and establish continuity with landscape portals portals or parts of them from about 140 stave churches have been preserved there are roughly three portal types the simple profile portal the column portal and the beam portal the simple profile portal is a doorway frame by simple profiles or pillisters these portals are mostly used on cord doors about 20 such doors have been preserved the column portal is derived from stone architecture it has full or half columns that carry a curved archival the columns have bases and chapters they are richly decorated and were used both on front doors and inside cross sections about 40 such portals are known the beam portal consists of two portal planks and a top piece with continuous decoration the upper part has two to five horizontal planks that are folded into each other with tongue and groove this is supported by the standing wall planks that flank the doorway seventy-five more or less complete portals of this type have been preserved in some beam portals the column motif is also incorporated together with the surface decorations with or without archival most of the preserved material comes from san hardanger and from the mountain villages in eastern norway the main part of the portals is romanesque and lacks gothic features it is possible that the portals may have been painted but this has been difficult to determine with certainty the paint on the few that are painted today seems to be newer it is common to divide the portals according to style to earn style and romanesque style iconography most portals show dragons lions and vines that do not refer to specific biblical or other christian stories one of the exceptions is the christian motifs found on the west portal from the tornhem settle stave church which shows saint olav's martyrdom and status as a christ-like saint a research problem has been the portal's iconography as for the earned style portals the idea that it should have a pagan content is rejected the large animal has been interpreted as a lion the lion can represent christ who fights with and wins over evil common features of most portals are that they are monumental and that they have fighting dragons which may be symbolic of magic to avert pain buck believes that this may be a pagan iconography and christian interpretation in the san valdres portals the lion is replaced by a vine which also represents christianity in reference to joe 15.5 i am the vine you are the branches holler opposes this interpretation she believes that the portals cannot have a religious content but as a picture of the clients or builder's intention a ruling motif there are many portals in europe that are pure ornaments she refers to bernhard of clairvaux who opposed the use of animals in the christian context what justification do the beasts of the monastery have for the formless treasure of form and the formless formlessness what do pictures there have to do with unclean monkeys wild lions amazing centaurs and half humans why serve tigers fighting knights hunters who blow their horns there you see under a head several bodies and there you see on a four-legged body a snake's tail they're on a fish in animal head everywhere there is such a rich and fantastic collection of different shapes that one directs one's eyes to the sculptures rather than the content of the holy books she therefore believes that animal motifs in romanesque art have little religious significance and the portals can be pure ruler symbols hofton believes that many of the so-called pagan portal motifs have a clear christian message believing that in principle the norwegian stave church motifs do not differ from many of the motifs found in other romanesque church art such as on romanesque church portals and stone baptismal fonts in sweden and denmark other researchers believe that the portals are inspired by english art the background may be manuscripts and stone sculpture some of these manuscripts are animal books with a christian allegorical content often referred to as bestiaries the origin of these is the physiologists a collection of allegories about animals with christian interpretations which are said to have originated in alexandria in the second century this basic text was in greek and throughout the middle ages the text was translated into a number of languages these stories are also the background for all the bestiaries that are preserved in various libraries and collections the sources of the physiologists are indian hebrew and egyptian animal stories and various classical texts written by among others aristotle and pliny the elder no early greek text has survived the oldest preserved are in latin but these must be very close to the greek original gradually it became common to illustrate the texts but there is a leap in development and a number of texts with illustrations have been lost lincovus refers to the physiologists as a background for animal depictions and portals on gotland these stone churches were often built after the stave churches in the same places had become too small unfortunately most of the wooden churches have disappeared so it is not possible to study the decor but it is not unreasonable to assume that they have had the same decor as norwegian stave churches and that these motifs may then have been continued in the stone portals background and origin would then be approximately the same dating of churches stave churches can be dated in various ways by historical records or inscriptions by stylistic means using construction details or ornaments or by dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating often historical records or inscriptions will point to a year when the church is known to have existed archaeological excavations can yield fines that provide relative dating for the structure whereas absolute dating methods such as radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology can provide a more exact date one drawback of dendrochronology is that it tends to overlook the possibility that the wood could have been reused from an older structure or felled and left for many years before use an important problem in dating the churches is that the solid ground sills are the construction elements most likely to have the outer parts of the logs still preserved yet they are the most susceptible to humidity and as people back then reused building parts the church may have been rebuilt several times if so a dendrochronological dating may be based upon a log from a later reconstruction coin finds made under the church floors are also important for dating results from studies with the photodendro method published in 2019 have come with adjusted estimates for age of the timber used the churches at earns cowponger and hoppersted were examined particularly thoroughly hapastad's stave church gender dated to 1131-1132 previously assumed 11 25 to 12 50. cowponger stave church dated to 1137-1138 formerly adopted 1170-1200 gold stave church 1204-05 previously assumed 1170-1309 borgian state church 1180-1181 previously assumed 11 50-12 50.
caverns stave church 1633 previously believed to be from the middle ages is the only known stave church in norway built after the reformation state church's program the poor condition of the stave churches led the national heritage board to start the stave churches program in 2001. the program was to create positive ripple effects in the form of greater local activity with traditional ways of using materials and resources the goals of the program were to restore the stave churches so that they can be preserved for posterity to preserve the decor and church art to supplement the documentation of the stave churches as a basis for research and reconstruction of lost parts the results of the program with the details of what has been done at the individual churches was documented in a report in 2008. list of stave church's most stave churches are in norway but they can also be found in iceland sweden denmark and germany stave churches are quite popular phenomenon and several have been built or rebuilt around the world the two most copied are borg and and head-aired with some variations and sometimes with adaptations to add elements from known stave churches from the area in other places they are of a freer form and built for display old stave churches norway borg and stave church sonag fjordanae end of the 12th century iceberg stave church telemark middle of the 13th century flesberg stave church in flesberg busgrid circa 1200 garmo stave church opland circa 1150 goal stave church in goal buskarad grip stave church morag romsdal second half of the 15th century halt dalens stave church sore trondelog 1170-1179 heddle stave church opland second half of the 12th century heddle stave church telemark beginning of the 13th century hague stave church opland 1216 hoppersted stave church sonog fjordane 1140 horse dave church opland 1179 hoyard stave church and abu vestfold second half of the 12th century cowponger stave church sonag fjordane 1190 caverns stave church morag romsdal second half of the 14th century loman stave church opland 1179 lom stave church oplan 1158 north state church nor aguevdahl buskarat 1167 oye stave church opland second half of the 12th century reinless stave church opland 1190 ringaboo stave church opland first quarter of the 13th century rolog stave church rolog buskarid second half of the 12th century rodvan's stave church morogramsdale circa 1200 roldall stave church hortiland first half of the 13th century torpo stave church al buskarat 1192 undertale stave church sonag fjordanae middle of the 12th century earns stave church sonag fjordani first half of the 12th century uvdol stave church uvdoll buskarat 1168 outside norway bank stave church moved from norway to poland in 1842 had aired stave church sweden c 1500 built on the site of an earlier stave church greenstead church england 845 or 1053 the only one palisade church is known to survive has been claimed to be the oldest wooden church in the world and probably the oldest wooden building in europe still standing notable replicas in later built churches skagastave church in torbota vastragotaland county sweden built in the 12th century torn down in the 19th century rebuilt in the 1950s burnt down and rebuilt again in 2001. jaime stave church at jaime vest manayer iceland built in 2000 chapel in the hills in rapid city south dakota united states a replica of borgen stave church 1969 little norway wisconsin united states relocated to orkdahl norway in 2016. fantoft stave church norway built c 1150 destroyed by arson in 1992 and rebuilt in favong stave church in ringabu opland norway rebuilt in 1630