Quantum Entanglement and the Great Bohr-Einstein Debate | Documentary Unwind
We. Live in a world where objects, have permanence. And. We. See cause then. Effect. But. A startling, phenomenon. Is revealing, that this is not how the universe works, at the smallest scales, of atoms and tiny particles. Albert. Einstein, argued it, couldn't, possibly be, real, Einstein. Was like a jack-in-the-box every, day he'd pop up with a new challenge but. After a century of disputes, and discoveries, the. Experiment just beautiful, we're. Using it to create revolutionary. New technologies. What. We have here is a, quantum, playground, we. Want to push the technology as, by, the possible, it's, perhaps the strangest concept. In physics we're, left with conclusions that make no sense whatsoever yet. It could be what forms the very fabric, of our cosmos, in the end we just have this quantum, mechanical, world there's no space anymore it's. Like being an Alice in Wonderland everything. Is possible, could. It be real. It's. Einstein's. Quantum. Riddle. You. You. A century. Of discoveries, in physics reveals. A strange counterintuitive. Microworld. Of atoms and tiny particles, that. Challenges, our intuitive, understanding, of the world we see around us. It's. Known as quantum, mechanics. This. Strange, theory, has enabled us to develop the remarkable, technologies, of our digital, age. But. It makes a very troubling. Prediction. Called. Quantum, entanglement. Entitlement. Is this very, powerful. But strange, connection, that, exists between pairs, of particles. Even. If they very far apart in. The way they're always coordinated. Nature's. Fundamental. Building blocks could be connected and influence, each other instantaneously. As if. The space between them doesn't, exist as, if. Two, objects, can mirror each other without. Any apparent connection. Einstein. Called it spooky, action at a distance he. Rejected, the idea and. Tried to prove it couldn't be real you, could have situations, where the, cause and the effect happen, at the same time. But. If entanglement. Isn't real, cutting-edge. Technologies. Could be in jeopardy, quantum. Computers, quantum, encryption they, depend, on entanglement being a fact in the world. Underlying. It all is a profound, question. Do. We live in Einstein's universe. Of common-sense laws. Or. A bizarre, quantum. Reality, that, allows spooky, connections, across, space and time. 300. Miles off the coast of West Africa on. One of the Canary Islands, a team. Of physicists, is, setting up a remarkable, experiment, that will use almost the entire breadth, of the universe. To. Settle the question. Is. The seemingly, impossible phenomenon. Of quantum entanglement an illusion. Or. Is it actually real. Leading. The team is Anton, Zeilinger. We. Are going up the. Mountain. Towards, the rock. Gideros, muchachos. It's. Perfect, today. It's. A precarious, undertaking. They've. Gone a short window, on two of Europe's largest telescopes. Each. One will simultaneously focus. On a different quasar, an extremely. Distant, galaxy, emitting. Huge amounts, of light from its core. This, light will, be used to control precise, equipment, that, must be perfectly, aligned to, make measurements on tiny subatomic, particles. And. If, that isn't tricky, enough the. Weather on the mountain is notoriously unpredictable. The. Team needs perfect, conditions, for the experiment, to work. In the end it could be running smoothly. Or. There's. Little, big a couple, decisions, made you. Know in, the next active, States in the last instance. With. The experiment finally. Set up a team. Takes their positions. David. Kiser has worked on this experiment, with his colleagues Jason, Colicchio and Andy, Friedman for, four years. Coordinating. It all is Dominic Roush, the. Experiment, is his thesis project, and it's, been years, in the making but. As. Darkness falls, temperatures. On the mountain begin to drop. Okay. Okay. Okay. There's bad news they. Have been told to leave the van in partial because the road will be so dangerous too dangerous so they have to go, down now - I see yeah. The. Next day the. Team prepares for another attempt. They. Verify, the equipment, hasn't been affected by the weather. But, now the, air is thick with clouds. Yes. The humidity, at the various telescopes, and you see the. Humidity is ordered percent and, so as long as this. Lasts. We. Can't do much. The. Teams at both telescopes. Wait. But. The clouds don't, clear.
All. The preparation, has come, to nothing. Time. On these huge telescopes, is precious and, theirs. Has, run out. This. Ambitious, test of quantum entanglement must. Wait. Why. Are physicists. So determined, to put this bizarre, aspect, of quantum mechanics, to the ultimate, test to. Explore, the beginning of the story David, Kaiser has come to Brussels. The, city that Albert Einstein traveled, to in 1927. To. Attend a meeting about a new theory, that described, the microworld of atoms and tiny particles. Quantum. Mechanics. Quantum. Mechanics is one of those amazing, intellectual, achievements, in human history. For. The first time scientists. Were able to probe. A world, that was until. Then quite, invisible to us looking. At the world at the scale of atoms a million. Times smaller than the, width of a human hair one. Way to think about the scales is that if you take an everyday object like, a soccer ball and. You. Enlarge, that soccer ball so that actually, you can see the, individual, atoms you're, if you have to make it the. Size of the earth and. Then. Move, into that planet. Then. You are in the world of atoms and particles. It. Was the nature of fundamental. Particles, which make up the world we, see around us, that, Einstein, had come to Brussels, to discuss and, it. Was here that Einstein, entered into a heated debate that. Would lead to the discovery of quantum, entanglement. A. Concept. That would trouble him for, the rest of his life. David. Kiser has come to the place where it all began. This, is the original soul, they Institute, building. Beautiful. Grand building, and this is the place, back in October. 1927. Where. The fifth soul of a conference was held, this. Amazing. Week-long. Series of discussions, on really, what the world is made of on the nature of matter the. New quantum, theory and these. Steps, are, the very steps. On. Which the famous. Group, photograph, was taken is. A collection of some, of the most brilliant, people in the world here. In the front row we. See Albert Einstein, and the great Marie Curie in machs plunk in the back row standing, the dapper air with Schrodinger, and, he stood a brash 20, year older mid-20s. Verner, Heisenberg, engulfed in how early, these. Scientists. Were the pioneers of, quantum, mechanics, I had. A huge, version, of this photograph up on the walls a poster, in my college dorm room I roommates. Had their favorite pads and I had to the 1927. Solvay conference which. Says a lot, this.
Was One of the greatest meetings, of minds in history. More. Than half were, or would become, Nobel. Prize winners. Their. Experiments. Were showing that. Deep inside matter tiny. Particles, like, atoms and, their orbiting, electrons, were. Not solid, little spheres. They. Seemed fuzzy, and, undefined. So. This, group here this these these were the folks who had just been. Plumbing, deeper, and deeper and deeper to. Find what, they hope to be a bedrock, of what the world is made of and to, their surprise they, found things, less and less solid, as they dug in this, world was not tiny, little bricks that got smaller and smaller at some point the bricks gave way to this mush, and what. Looked like solidity, solidness, in fact became very confusing, and and kind, of a whole new way of thinking about nature. The. Theory, of quantum mechanics, presented, at the meeting was. Strange. It. Said that a particle, like an electron, isn't. Physically, real, until. It's observed. Measured. By an instrument that can detect, it. Before. It's detected, instead. Of being a solid, particle an electron. Is just, a fuzzy, wave a wave. Of, probability. These. Objects. Like electrons, are atoms, when we describe mathematically. Their. Behavior, the only thing we can describe is the probability. Of being, at one place, or another, it's. Like a wave of all those different possibilities, it's. Not that the electron is in, one place or the other we just don't know is, that the electron really, is a combination, of every possible, place it could be until. We look at it. Quantum. Mechanics, only tells us the probability of a particles, properties, like. Location. Laws. Of nature we're no longer definite. Statements, about what's going to happen next they, were just statements, about probabilities, and. Einstein, fell all deaths defeat, you're, giving up on the, heart of what physics, has been namely. To give a complete, description of reality. For. Einstein. The. Idea that particles, only happened, to existence, when they're observed, is. Akin, to magic. It. Said he asked, do, you really believe the moon is not there when you are not looking at it. Outside. Of the formal setting of the conference. He. Challenged, the most vocal supporter, of these ideas, the. Great Danish, physicist, Niels Bohr. As. I would show up to breakfast, at the hotel and, Niels, Bohr would be there and Iceland would present his latest challenge Niels. Bohr was sort of mumble, and Wonder, and and, confer, with his younger colleagues, they'd head off to the formal, meeting at the Institute and somehow, every. Night by suppertime Bohr, would have an answer one, of the observers said that Einstein, was like a jack-in-the-box every, day he'd pop up with a new challenge and Bohr. Would flip, this way and that in the end by supper have crushed that one and they would start all over again. -. Bohr and his colleagues, quantum. Mechanics, not only explained, experimental. Results, it's. Mathematics. Were elegant and beautiful. And. Since. Einstein hadn't. Found flaws in their equations, they. Left the solve a meeting feeling, more confident, than ever in their ideas. But. Einstein, didn't, give up his conviction, that quantum, mechanics was. Flawed and. In. His refusal to accept the weird implications. Of the theory, he. Would wind up uncovering, something, even, weirder. In 1933. With, the Nazi Party in power in Germany, Einstein. Chose to settle in America and took. A position at the Institute, for Advanced Study in, Princeton New, Jersey. He. Recruited two physicists. To help him Nathan. Rosen and Boris. Podolsky and. In. 1935. At afternoon, tea. The. Three men spotted, a possible, flaw in quantum, mechanics that would. Shake the very foundations. Of the theory. They. Noticed that the mathematics, of quantum mechanics. Led, to a seemingly, impossible, situation. Today. Robert. Dygraf is the director, of the Institute. Apparently. Poodles can say well professor Einstein this. Is very important, in your arguments. Showing. That quantum. Theory is incomplete, so, they've. Got this very animated, discussion, and what can, happen still is now you have a bunch of scientists. Discussing, and at some point someone. Says let's write a paper together so. They did. Their. Paper known. Today as EPR. Argued. That the equations, of quantum mechanics. Predicted. An impossible, connection. Between particles. A. Seemingly. Magical effect. It. Would be like having two particles. Each. Hidden, under a cup. Looking. At one. Mysteriously. Causes, the other to. Reveal itself, to, with. Matching, properties. Quantum. Theory suggested, this effect could happen in the real world, for. Example with particles, of light. Photons. The. Equations, implied that a source of photons, could. Create pairs in such a way. That, when we measure one. Causing. It to snap out of its fuzzy state. The. Other mysteriously. Snaps, out of its fuzzy state at the same instant, with, correlated.
Properties. The. 1935. Paper that described, this effect has. Become Einsteins, most referenced, work of all. It. Has captivated, generations. Of physicists. Including. Anton. Zeilinger. The. Instant. Bukowski Rosen paper fascinated. Me and I. Had to read it at least five or six times until I finally understood, portfolio, and, then, it didn't, let. Me go again. Another. Way to think of the paired particles, is, to imagine a game of chance that somehow, rigged, I, suppose. I, had a. Pair. Of quantum, dice I. Put. These two quantum, dice in my little. Cup. Throw. Them. And. Look at them they show the same number six I put. Them again in the trap throw. Them again. Now. They both show three. Put. The mean again. So. Again. Now. They both show one. Point. Not being what I see here is I see. Two. Random. Processes namely. Each, die showing. Some number but, these two random. Processes to, the same. Let's. Wait a man talking. How. Could two particles, act in unison. Even. When they're separated from each other. Is. Central, to the EPR argument, is that these particles, can be can be separated, and, an arbitrary distance one could be here at Princeton one could be in the Andromeda galaxy and yet, according to quantum, mechanics a choice. To measure something here is somehow. Instantaneously. Affecting, what, could be said about this other particle, you. Can't go from Princeton to Andromeda instantly. And yet that they argued is what the equations of quantum mechanics, seemed to imply and that, they said so much the worse for quantum mechanics the world simply can't operate that way. For. Einstein, this. Strange, effect, conflicted. With the most basic concept. We use to describe reality, space. For. Him objects. Particles, everything. That exists, is located. In space. Space. Together, with time was. The key ingredient, in his theory of special relativity. In. Its famous equation, e equals. MC, squared Einstein. Of. Course was the master of space-time. He. Thought that if something happened here, that shouldn't, immediately, and instantaneously. Change something that is going on over there the principle of locality as, we, currently call it. For. Einstein, it's. Simply, common sense that if objects, are separated. In space, for. One to affect the other something. Must travel between them. And. That. Traveling, takes, time. Quantum. Particles, acting in unison could, be explained, if they were communicating. One. Particle instantly. Sending, a signal to the other telling. It what properties, it should have. But, that would require a signal. Traveling faster, than the speed of light, something.
Einstein's, Theory, of special relativity had. Proven, impossible. And it, would mean the particles, were fuzzy and undefined. Until. The moment they were observed. Instead. I'm, Stein thought the particles, should, be real all along. They. Must carry with them a hidden layer of deeper physics that. Determines, their properties, from the start. Almost. The way that magic, tricks, while. Appearing mysterious. Have. A hidden explanation. But. This hidden, physics was missing, from quantum, theory so. Einstein Podolsky. And Rosen argued. That quantum mechanics was. Incomplete. Podolski. Was very enthusiastic about, this, project in fact he was so, enthusiastic that, he ran. To the New York Times and told. Them the news so, Einstein was, really upset with Podolski, and apparently. He didn't speak to him anymore. When. Niels bohr heard, of einstein's, paper he. Wrote an obscure, response. Arguing. That one particle, could somehow, mysteriously, influence. The other. This. Seemingly, impossible phenomenon. Became. Known as quantum. Entanglement. But, Einstein dismissed. It as, spooky, action at a distance. No, one could think of an experiment to test whether Einstein, or Bohr was correct. But. That didn't stop physicists. And engineers from. Making use of quantum, mechanics, to, do new things. In. Their 30s and 40s the, debate. Around the EPR, paper sort. Of dies down but. Quantum theory actually takes off. The. Mathematics. Leads to all kinds of amazing, developments. Entanglement. Aside the. Equations, of quantum mechanics. Enable, the scientists. Of the Manhattan Project to, develop, the atomic bomb, and in. The years after the Second World War. Researchers. At Bell Labs in New Jersey used. Quantum, theory to develop one of the first lasers, in, our laboratories. Men experiment, with a light once, undreamed-of, in the natural world and build. Small, devices, that. Could control, the flow of electricity. Transistors. And, destined to play a vital role in your beauty, their. Electronic, future. Transistors. Became, the building, blocks of the burgeoning field of electronics. Computers. Disk, drives the, entire digital, revolution. Soon followed, all, made, possible by. The equations. Of quantum theory. Yet. Einsteins questions, about entanglement, and what, it implied about, the incompleteness, of quantum mechanics, remained. Unanswered. Until. The 1960s. When. A physicist, from Northern Ireland made. A remarkable, breakthrough. John. Bell. Bell. Was a very, talented young physics student but he quickly grew dissatisfied, with what, he considered almost almost, a kind of dishonesty, among his teachers. Bell. Insisted. At Einsteins questions, about quantum, mechanics had not been addressed, you. Gotta the shouting, matches with his professors, don't tell, us that Boris solved all the problems this really deserves further thought, quantum. Mechanics, has been, fantastically. Successful, so. It is a very trading, situation. The. Foundation, of, all that impressive. Success. There, are these. It's. A very strange thing that ever since the 1930s. The, idea of sitting and thinking hard about the foundations, of quantum mechanics, has been disreputable. Among. Professional, physicists, when, people tried to do that they were kicked out of physics departments, and so, for someone like Bell he, needed to have a day job doing. Ordinary particle. Physics but. At night you know hidden away he could do work on the foundations, of modern mechanics. Bell. Became, a leading particle, physicist, at CERN in Geneva. But, he continued, to explore, the debate between Einstein, and Bohr. And, in. 1964. He, published an astonishing. Paper. Bell. Proved, that, bores and Einsteins ideas made different, predictions. If. You could randomly perform, one of two possible, measurements, on each particle, and, check. How often the results, lined up, the. Answer, would reveal whether we lived in Einsteins, world a. World. That followed common-sense laws. Or. Bohr's. A world, that was deeply, strange, and allowed, spooky. Quantum, connections, we.
Now Know with hindsight this was one of the most significant, particles, in the, history of physics not just the history of 20th century physics in the history of the. Field as a whole. But. Bell's article, appears in this you know sort of out of the way journal in fact the journal itself folds, a few years later this, is not central. To the physics community, it sort of dutifully, filed on library, shelves and, then forgotten it literally, collects dust on the shelf a, few. Years later, completely. By chance a brilliant. Experimental. Physicist, stumbled, upon Bell's, article, I. Thought. This is one of the most amazing, papers. I had ever read in my whole life and. I. Kept wondering well gee, this is wonderful, but, where's, the experimental. Evidence. John. Worked on Bell's theory, with fellow physicist, Abner Simoni and at. The University, of California, Berkeley started. Work on an experiment, to test it. He. Had a talent for tinkering, in the lab and building. The parts he needed but. Just to rummage around here, and scavenge, from dumpster-dive, for old equipment. He. Knew where to find hidden storage, rooms like this which. He could raid to salvage, spare parts for his experiments. And. This was a, power. Supply for a diode lasers, that. Looks like something I built. Here's. A picture of the, experiment. I did I had, more hair in those days, here's. Another picture. This. Is a stew Friedman worked, with me. Piece. By piece, John, clauser and Stuart Friedman, constructed. The world's, first bail test experiment. They. Focused a laser on two calcium, atoms, causing. Them to emit pairs of photons that the, equations, of quantum theory suggested. Should, be entangled. They. Recorded, whether or not the photons, passed through filters, on each side and. Check. How often, the answers, agreed. After. Hundreds, of thousands, of measurements, if the pair's were more correlated, than Einsteins, physics, predicted, they. Must be spookily, entangled. We. Saw the stronger, correlation, characteristic. Of auto mechanics. We. Measured it and that's what we got the. Outcome. Was exactly, what Bohr's quantum, mechanics, predicted. The, experiment, appeared to show that the spooky connections, of quantum, entanglement, did. Exist, in the natural world. Could. It be that the great Albert Einstein, was. Wrong. Remarkably. The. First people to react to this extraordinary, result. Were. Not the world's leading physicists. Ronald. Reagan's definition, of a hippie was. Someone who dresses, like Tarzan. Has, hair like Jane, and smells like cheetah. A small.
Group Of free-thinking physicists. At the heart of San Francisco's, new-age scene. Got. In touch with John. They. Call themselves the fundamental, physics group they spelled physics with an F some. Members, would experiment with psychedelic. Drugs I mean there were they were kind of in the flow of the kind of hippie scene and that group was just mesmerized by. The question of entanglement. The. Idea was just to discuss fringe subjects, with an open mind and I, love it sure, that's. Kind of what I do. They. Were doing, their best to link. Eastern. Mysticism, with. Quantum, entanglement. They. Sold a lot of popular, textbooks, there were a lot of followers. Their. Books became, bestsellers, like. The, Dow of physics, which. Highlighted, that Eastern, philosophy, and quantum, entanglement, both, described, the deep connectedness, of, things in the universe. He's. The great cosmic, oneness. The. Group held meetings at the iconic Esalen. Institute. It. Was a marvelous. Beautiful, place where. They would discuss all of these ideas it. Was right on the Pacific coast with the overflow, from the hot tubs cascading. Down like this into the Pacific Ocean. To. My knowledge no. Useful. Connections. To Eastern mysticism were, ever discovered by the group. But, it was fun. The. Fundamental, physics group may, not have uncovered the secrets, of cosmic, oneness. But. In seeing, entanglement. As central, to physics they. Were decades, ahead of their time. Forty. Years later, cutting-edge. Labs around the world are now racing to harness quantum, entanglement, to create, revolutionary. New technologies. Like. Quantum, computers. In. Our everyday. Computers, the fundamental. Unit of computing, is, a bit a binary, digit 0 or 1 and, inside the computer there's all these transistors, which are turning on and off currents, on is one off is zero and, these combinations, lead to Universal. Computing, with. A quantum, computer you start with a fundamental unit that's not a bit but a quantum bit which. Is not really. A 0 or a 1 but it can be fluid a. Quantum. Bit makes use of the fuzziness, of the quantum world a. Qubit. As it's known can. Be 0 or 1 or, a, combination of both a. Particle. Or tiny quantum, system, can. Be made into a qubit and today. It's, not just pairs of particles that can be entangled, groups. Of qubits can be linked with entanglement, to create, a quantum, computer. The, more cubits the. Greater the processing, power. At. Google's, quantum, computing, laboratory in Santa Barbara, the. Team has recently succeeded. In creating a tiny chip that. Holds an array of 72. Qubits. The, task for researcher, Marisa Justyna and her colleagues, is. To send signals, to these microscopic, qubits, to control. And entangle, them. Mounted. On the underside, of this plate we, have the, quantum processing, chip itself in. Essence a quantum, playground, you could say each. Qubit, is a, quantum, object, that, we should be able to control and we'll. Thinking. About it as. The. Faster, version of that, PC over there would, be a, great. Sleight to this it, can, be much more than that. By. Using entangled. Qubits, quantum. Computers, could tackle real-world, problems, that traditional, computers, simply. Can't cope with. For. Example a, Salesman. Has to travel to several cities and wants, to find the shortest route. Sounds. Easy. But. With just 30 cities there. Are so many possible, routes that. It would take an ordinary computer even a powerful, one hundreds. Of years, to, try each one and, find, the shortest. But. With a handful, of entangled, qubits a quantum. Computer could, resolve the optimal, path in a fraction, of the number of steps. There's, another reason teams like Marisa's are racing, to create a powerful, quantum, computer. Cracking. Secret, codes. In, today's, world everything. From online shopping, to covert military communications. Is protected. From hackers using. Secure, digital codes a process. Called, encryption. But. What if hackers could. Get hold of quantum, computers, a quantum. Computer could, crack. Our best encryption, protocols, in minutes whereas, a regular, computer, or even a supercomputing, network today couldn't do it you know given months of time. But. While quantum, entanglement, may be a threat to traditional, encryption. It. Also offers an even more secure, alternative. A. Communication. System that the very laws of physics protect, from, secret hacking. Researchers. In China are. Leading, the way. Here, in Shanghai. At. The University, of Science and Technology.
Jian. Way path runs. A leading quantum Research Centre. His. Teams are working to harness the properties, of the quantum world. They, can send secret messages using. A stream of photons in, a system, that instantly, detects, any attempt, to eavesdrop. Jan, weighs team has created a network of optical, fibers more than a thousand, miles long that. Can carry secure, information from. Beijing, to, Shanghai. It. Is used by banks and data, companies. But. There's a limit to how far quantum, signals, can be sent through optical, fibers. To. Send signals, further Jan. Weighs team launched, the world's first quantum. Communication, satellite. Above. Earth's atmosphere, there, are fewer obstacles and quantum. Particles, can travel much, further. Each. Night teams, on the ground prepare. To track the satellite across, the sky. Laser, guidance, equipment locks, on and allows. Signals, to be sent and received. The. Team aims to use this equipment to create a new secure, communication. System using, quantum. Entanglement. The. Satellite, sends entangled, photons to two users, an. Eavesdropper. Could intercept. One of the entangled, photons. Measure. It and, send. On a replacement, photon. But. It wouldn't be an entangled. Photon its, properties, wouldn't, match it. Would be clear an eavesdropper. Was on a line. In. Theory, this technique, could be used to create a totally, secure global, communication. Network so, the next step is we'll, have drawn station, put sample in Canada, and also, in Africa and, a mannequin ship so we will use our satellite for, the global, corn communication. We. Want to push this technology, as five, possible. These. Are the first steps in creating a completely unhackable, quantum. Internet of the future, made. Possible, by, quantum, entanglement. But. There's a problem. What. If quantum entanglement. Spooky. Action at a distance. Isn't. Real after, all. It. Could mean entangled, photons, are not the path to complete security. The. Question goes back to clauser and Friedman's, Bell test experiment. In. The years after their pioneering, work. Physicists. Began to test possible loopholes. In their experiment. Ways. In which the illusion, of entanglement, might be created, so the, effect might, not be so spooky, after all. One. Loophole is. Especially, hard to rule out. In. Modern, bell test experiments. Devices. At each side test, whether the photons, can pass through one of two filters, that, are randomly, chosen. Effectively. Asking one of two questions and, checking how often the answers agree. After. Thousands. Of photons if. The results, show more agreement, than Einsteins, physics, predicts the. Particles, must, be spookily, entangled. But. What if something had mysteriously, influenced. The equipment, so. That the choices of the filters, were, not truly, random. Is. There any common. Cause deep. In the past before you even turn on your device that. Could have nudged the questions, to be asked and the types of particles to be emitted maybe some strange, particle, maybe some force that had not been taken into account so, that what looks like entanglement, might indeed be an accident. An illusion, maybe the world still acts like Einstein thought. It. Is this loophole at, the team at the high altitude Observatory, in the Canary Islands, is working, to tackle. With. Quantum, mechanics now more established, than ever they. Are determined, to put entanglement, to the ultimate, test and finally. Settle the Einstein, Bohr debate beyond all reasonable. Doubt. The. Team is creating a giant version of clauser and Friedman's Bell test but. The entire universe, has, their lab bench. In. This. Cosmic. Belt test. The. Source of the entangled, particles, is about. A third of a mile from each of the detectors. The. Team must send perfectly, time pairs of photons through, the air to, each side at, the. Same time the, telescope's will collect light from two extremely, far-off, extremely.
Bright Galaxies, called, quasars. These. Are among the brightest, objects, in the sky emitting. Light, in powerful, jets. Random. Variations, in this light will, control, which filters, are used to measure the photon pairs and. Since. The quasars, are so far away the. Light has been travelling for billions, of years to reach Earth. It. Makes it incredibly unlikely, that anything, could be influencing. The random, nature of the test. If. The experiment is successful the. Team will have tackled the loophole, and shown, that quantum, entanglement, is as, spooky as Bohr always, claimed. Dominick, and Jason are at one telescope. Anton. Is at the other. Jacaranda. Kazar in field of view in, that years. Yeah. Carrie Virginia the, contrast is super close. Okay. Joe. With, clear skies finally. Overhead a huge. Telescopes, awakened. Poised. To collect light from distant quasars. Moving. So many kisses are never, right. Dark on living. So. We're doing everything to, everything, runs now so are they get you the guys for the Ling's are, setting the state of. The integrant photon pair we try to acquire the quasar, we're. Just centering, it and, making. Feet of yours most possible, to be sure to be only half the quasar. Okay. She's, guiding now yes. Okay off this one, all. Right right good good, good yes okay. Yeah that's good. Looks. Like ninety let's, say ninety one to be conservative a purity. With. The telescopes, now locked on to two different quasars. The. Team begins, to take readings. We. Did a fool the, Foucault slingbow test what. Yeah. We're doing a fool cause we birthdays. It's. Working. Light, from the quasars, is, selecting, which filters, are used to measure the entangled, photons. This, is exciting. It is now. We do, have a text but it's. Not. Clear, what the outcome will be. All. Right, everything. Is exactly the same beautiful perfect. Two, months later back, in Vienna the. Team analyzes, the experimental. Data, this. Might. Take a second. The. Numbers look really great and it. Is extremely, pleasing to see that all these works are nice. We. Clearly. See correlations, that correspond, to quantum mechanics. The. Results, show, entanglement. And since. The light from the quasar is, controlling, the test was. Nearly eight billion, years old, it's. Extremely, unlikely that anything, could have affected, its random nature. His. Remaining, loophole, seems. To be closed. The, experiment, it is just, fantastic the, big, cosmos, comes down to it. Or a small quantum, experiment, that, in itself is a, beautiful. You. Know honestly I still I still get chills guys. When. I realized what our team was able to do in this, intellectual. Journey of the stretches back to the early years of the 20th century, there's. There's hardly. Any room left for, a, kind, of alternative, Einstein. Leg explanation. We. Haven't ruled it out but, we've shoved it into such a tiny corner, of the cosmos, as to, make it even.
More Implausible, for anything other than, entanglement. To explain our results. Accepting. That entanglement, is a part of the natural world around us, has. Profound, implications. It. Means we must accept, that an action, in one place can. Have an instant effect anywhere, in the universe as. If there's no space between them. Or, that. Particles, only take on physical, properties, when. We observe them. Or, we must accept, both. We. Were left with conclusions about the universe that, make no sense whatsoever. Science. Is stepping, outside of all of our boundaries, of common sense so. Almost like being in Alice in Wonderland right where everything. Is possible. It. Was first seen as an unwelcome, but unavoidable consequence. Of quantum mechanics. Now. After, nearly a century of disputes, and discoveries. Spooky. Action at a distance is, finally. At the heart of modern physics. At. The Institute, for Advanced Study where. The concept, of entanglement was first described. Researchers. Are now using it in their search for a single, unified, theory, of the universe the. Holy grail of physics. Einstein's. Theories, of special, and general relativity. Perfectly. Described space time, and gravity at, the, largest scales of the universe. While. Quantum, mechanics. Perfectly. Describes, the tiniest, scales. Yet. These two theories have. Never been brought together. So. Far we've not yet had a single. Complete, theory, that, is both quantum, mechanical, and reproduces. The prediction, of Einstein's wonderful. Theory, of general relativity. Maybe. The, secret is entanglement. What. If space itself, is actually created. By the tiny quantum, world. Just. Like temperature, warm. And cold consists. Simply of the movement, of atoms inside. An object. Perhaps. Space, as we know it emerges. From networks, of entangled, quantum particles. It's. A mind-blowing, idea. What. We are learning these, days is, that we might have to give up that. What Einstein holds, sacred, namely, space and time so he, was always thinking while we have little pieces of space and time and out of this we built the, whole universe.
In. A radical, theory known. As the holographic. Universe, space. And time are created, by entangled. Quantum particles. On a sphere. That's. Infinitely. Far away. What's. Happening, in space in some sense all. Described. In terms of a screen outside here. The. Ultimate, description, of reality resides. On this screen think of it as kind of quantum. Bits living on that screen and this. Like, a movie projector creates. A illusion. Of, the. Three-dimensional, reality that, are now experiencing. It. May be impossible, to intuitively, understand. This wild, mathematical. Idea. But. It suggests that. Entanglement. Could. Be what forms, the true fabric of the universe. The. Most puzzling element, of entanglement. That somehow, two points, in, space can, communicate. Becomes. Less, of a problem because space itself has disappeared. In. The end we just have this quantum, mechanical, world there is no space anymore and. So. In some sense the paradoxes. Of entanglement. The, EPR paradox disappears. Into thin air. Truly. Understanding, quantum mechanics, will, only happen when we put ourselves on, the entanglement, side we. Stopped privileged. In the world that we see and, start thinking about the world as it actually is. Science. Has made enormous, progress for centuries, by sort of breaking complicated. Systems down into parts when, we come to phenomena like quantum entanglement, that scheme, breaks. When. It comes to the bedrock, of quantum mechanics, the. Whole is more, than, the sum of its parts. The, basic, motivation is, just. To learn how nature works, what's. Really going on. Instances. It very nicely is not interested, in this detailed question of that detailed question, they. Just wanted to know what. Were God's thoughts, when. He created the world. You.