Rome | Biking around the Aventine Hill, Italy【Biking Tour】With Captions - 4K
[Brief Intro] [Biking tour begins / Caracalla Baths] 1/15 [☀️Aventine Hill history☀️] According to Roman tradition, the Aventine was not included within Rome's original foundation, and lay outside the city's ancient sacred boundary (pomerium). The Roman historian Livy reports that Ancus Marcius, Rome's fourth king, defeated the Latins of Politorium, and resettled them there. 2/15 The Roman geographer Strabo credits Ancus with the building of a city wall to incorporate the Aventine. Others credit the same wall to Rome's sixth king, Servius Tullius. 3/15 The remains known as the Servian Wall used stone quarried at Veii, which was not conquered by Rome until c.393 BC, so the Aventine might have been part-walled, or an extramural suburb. 4/15 The Aventine appears to have functioned as some kind of staging post for the legitimate ingress of foreign peoples and foreign cults into the Roman ambit. During the late regal era, Servius Tullius built a temple to Diana on the Aventine, as a Roman focus for the new-founded Latin League. 5/15 The Aventine's outlying position, its longstanding association with Latins and plebeians and its extra-pomerial position reflect its early marginal status.
6/15 At some time around 493 BC, soon after the expulsion of Rome's last King and the establishment of the Roman Republic, the Roman senate provided a temple for the so-called Aventine Triad of Ceres, Liber and Libera, patron deities of the Roman commoners or plebs; the dedication followed one of the first in a long series of threatened or actual plebeian secessions. 7/15 The temple overlooked the Circus Maximus and the Temple of Vesta, and faced the Palatine Hill. It became an important repository for plebeian and senatorial records. It is presumed that the Aventine was state-owned public land; in c.456 BC a Lex Icilia allowed or granted the plebs property rights there. 8/15 By c.391 BC, the city's overspill had overtaken the Aventine and the Campus Martius, and left the city vulnerable to attack; around that year, the Gauls overran and temporarily held the city. 9/15 After this, the walls were rebuilt or extended to properly incorporate the Aventine; this is more or less coincident with the increasing power and influence of the Aventine-based plebeian aediles and tribunes in Roman public affairs, and the rise of a plebeian nobility. 10/15 Rome absorbed many more foreign deities via the Aventine: "No other location approaches [its] concentration of foreign cults". In 392 BC, Camillus established a temple there to Juno Regina. Later introductions include Summanus, c. 278, Vortumnus c. 264, and at some time before the end of the 3rd century, Minerva.
11/15 **Imperial era** In the imperial era the character of the hill changed and it became the seat of numerous aristocratic residences, including the private houses of Trajan and Hadrian before they became emperors and of Lucius Licinius Sura, friend of Trajan who built the private Baths of Licinius Sura. 12/15 The emperor Vitellius and the Praefectus urbi Lucius Fabius Cilo also lived there at the time of Septimius Severus. The Aventine was also the site of the Baths of Decius, built in 252. 13/15 This new character of an aristocratic neighbourhood was probably the cause of its total destruction during the sack of Rome by Alaric I in 410. The poorer population had meanwhile moved further south, to the plain near the port (Emporium) and to the other bank of the Tiber. 14/15 **Modern period** During the Fascist period, many deputies of the opposition retired on this hill after the murder of Giacomo Matteotti, here ending - by the so-called "Aventine Secession" - their presence at the Parliament and, as a consequence, their political activity. 15/15 The hill is now an elegant residential part of Rome with a wealth of architectural interest, including palaces, churches, and gardens, for example, the basilica of Santa Sabina and the Rome Rose Garden.
[Via Annia Faustina] [Gian Lorenzo Bernini square] [Via Aventino] [Via Peruzzi] [Piazza Albania] [Via di Santa Prisca] [Via della Fonte di Fauno] [Via delle Terme Daciane] [Piazza La Malfa] 1/5 [☀️Roses Garden☀️] It was established in 1931 on the decision of the Governor of Rome, Prince Francesco Boncompagni Ludovisi, at the request of Countess Mary Gayley Senni. The original location was on the Oppio hill, near the Colosseum. The garden consisted of about 300 plants, including a collection of roses from the Nursery of the Governorate. 2/5 In May 1933 the Rome Prize for New Varieties of Roses was established, the oldest competition in the world dedicated to these flowers after the one in Bagatelle, near Paris, established in 1907. Countess Mary Gayley Senni was the curator of the various editions and was part of the jury until 1954, representing the American Rose Society. 3/5 The rose garden was destroyed during the Second World War and was reconstituted in the Murcia Valley - an agricultural area which, since the 3rd century BC, had been the site of a temple dedicated to Flora. The Jewish cemetery was placed there from 1645 until 1934, and the site was therefore called "Ortaccio degli Eesio". 4/5 The Jewish cemetery was moved in 1934 to a sector of the Verano cemetery, and the area was occupied by "war gardens", only to remain uncultivated. In 1950 the Municipality, with the agreement of the Jewish community, decided to recreate the rose garden in the current area. 5/5 However, the ancient destination was not obliterated: the paths that divide the flower beds in the collections sector form the plan of a menorah, the seven-branched candelabrum, and at the two entrances a stele with the Tables of the Law of Moses was placed.
1/2 [☀️Clivo dei Publicii☀️] The Clivus Publicius was the first carriage road that allowed the climb up the hill. It started from the Foro Boario, near the Porta Trigemina and the western edge of the Circus Maximus, at today's Clivo dei Publicii, and continued along the current Via di Santa Prisca up to the Vicus Piscinae Publicae. 2/2 From the clivus another ancient road branched off on the right, called Vicus Armilustri (now via di Santa Sabina), which went south to the Porta Lavernalis of the Servian walls. Along the clivus stood the Temple of Diana. The clivus was affected by the fire of 203 BC. [Via Sant'Alberto Magno] [Basilica of Saint Sabina] 1/3 [☀️Garden of St. Alessio☀️] The area of the current garden was part of the possessions of the suppressed convent of the Somascan Congregation in S. Alessio all'Aventino that the Liquidating Council of the Ecclesiastical Axis had delivered to the Municipality of Rome in 1877, in implementation of the provisions of the law of 1866 on the abolition of ecclesiastical entities. 2/3 The Municipality arranged the narrow corridor overlooking the city with great simplicity. Pines and Mediterranean essences were arranged around the central avenue according to a traditional type of late nineteenth-century Roman public garden. 3/3 In 1937, on the left wall, a fountain was placed from the disappeared Palazzo Accoramboni and in 1954, in a nearby flower bed, the statue of Saint Joan of Arc, a gift of the French author Maxime Real Del Sarte.
[...leaving Aventine Hill...] [Piazza Giunone Regina] [Piazza del Tempio di Diana] [Piazza La Malfa] [Via del Circo Massimo] [Piazza della Bocca della Verità] [Via Petroselli]