Scandinavia, Scotland and the Scriptures | Lineage | Broadcast 6
Here. In Geneva the, reformist, Wharf commemorates. The role that, this city played in the Protestant Reformation. The. City became a refuge, for, many of the hunted, reformers, of Western. Europe John. Knox from Scotland, spent, several years here and the, Protestants, of Poland, and Spain, and, the Hyuga knows from France all sought, refuge here in the city but, then carried, the gospel from, here, elsewhere, indeed. This, city has often been referred to as the Protestant Rome. The. City, publicly. Accepted. The Reformed, faith on the 21st, of May, 1536. And while. Farrell was a key player in the, Reformation here. It was Calvin, that would make this, city famous. Some. Have referred to Calvin, as the, international. Reformer. Such, was his influence, beyond the boundaries, of the city limits. The. Central, idea that Calvin, developed, was, that a consistent, and coherent. Theological. System, could, be derived and defended, on the basis, of the Bible, Calvin's. Greatest, legacy, was arguably, not, any doctrine, but. Rather a demonstration. Of how the Bible, could serve as a foundation of, a, stable, understanding. Of Christian. Belief and structures. Another. Key thing that Calvin, did for, this city was. Founding, the University. Of Geneva in. 1559. Calvin. Had a huge sway, of. Influence. Over the, notable, men and women, of that time. In the 1600s. His influence, spread to England Scotland. France. Germany. It, was, far-reaching. In fact, from, this city over. 1700. Preachers, were, sent out to France alone. 1785. Congregations. Were formed, in the country of France and the preachers, that were trained here had to secretly, make their way over to, France they, used an underground, network, system. Similar, to the one used by the French during the resistance, in world war ii it would sneak across the border and they would make their way from house, to house until they, reached their place of work in the country, of France. One, of the greatest things to happen here in Geneva was, the publishing, of the Geneva Bible the, first English, version, that had numbered verses, in it the, theme of the, Reformation, here in Geneva was post tenebrous, looks, meaning. After, darkness. Light, and, truly. A lesson, we can learn from the Reformation here, was that when God's Word is studied when, it is read it, takes the darkness, of our minds away and brings, light may. We study, God's Word, may we spend time in God's Word that the darkness, of our minds, may be removed, by, the light of God's Word. You. The. Reformation, of the sixteenth, century was not limited to the powerhouses of Switzerland. Germany, France. England, and, Scotland but, also in the Nordic countries of Scandinavia. Something, special, would take place whilst.
The Fires of martyrs, were burning, all across England, during, the reign of bloody, Queen Mary and the Protestants, in France were persecuted. On numerous, occasions. In Sweden. And Denmark the, Reformation, would unfold much more, peacefully. And one, could argue they. Had a greater proportional. Impact, in each respective, country, the, story of the Scandinavian, Reformation. Is inextricably. Linked. To Martin, Luther and the Protestant, bastion, of Wittenberg. In, the country of Denmark one of the principal, figures in the Reformation was, a man named hands Towson, like, many others he had grown up in a Catholic family and spent, some of his early, years in a cloister, he, completed, much of his education in Denmark, where he was noted, for its understanding. Of Latin. And Hebrew but, he would also go on to study in Cologne whilst. There he came across some of Luther's, writings, and in 1523. He, went to Germany where, he met Martin, Luther and became, acquainted, with the new ideas, that were being espoused he. Would spend 18, months studying, there with, Luther, after, which he would return to Denmark, where initially, he kept it a secret that, he had been in Wittenberg. However. The good news of the gospel cannot, be hidden forever, and it was only a matter of time before, his teachings, were noted, to be different, from that of others, he, was soon expelled. From the cloister, but this was perhaps the biggest mistake, that his opponents, could make now. They had no control over, him and he was able to travel and preach throughout, the whole country causing. A great revival, he, also translated, the, Pentateuch, into Danish and this was circulated. Widely. Towson. Lived faithfully, here in Denmark, for the rest of his life and his influence, was key in this whole country accepting. The Reformed, faith this. Church here in Copenhagen was, built and named after him, in memory. Of the great influence, he had on the spiritual, history of this nation. Around. The same time as towson, was causing, a revival, in denmark, the Petri, brothers were having a similar impact here in sweden, the, work in these two country shows that, the disciples, were just as powerful and scholarly. As the, giants, under which they, study. Oh left. And Laurentiis, Petri the sons of a blacksmith, in horrible both studied, at the University, of Wittenberg where, they were influenced. By Luther, and melanchthon Olaf. Completed, his master's in 1519. And they both returned, back to their homeland of Sweden. They helped to translate, the Bible into Swedish. And through their hard work at the diet of masterís, Sweden. Was declared, Lutheran, the, first country, to do, so. All. Laugh Petri was buried here in this, church which, later became, the National, Cathedral, supplanting. The Uppsala, Cathedral, a testament. To the great work that he and his brother did. While. It might have been easier, for the Petri brothers or Towson, to live study, and work in a place like Wittenberg. Or Geneva, God had a better theme in store for them their, destiny, was to return to their homeland, and preach, the, gospel there, they, knew the language the, culture and, the customs, and they, were able to do a work there that others from elsewhere would, not have been able to do whatever, work you do may, you start with that which lies nearest. Whether, it be your home church which, might be small humble, and not so lively or maybe it's your home country. But, everyone is called to go to a faraway and distant, land but, we can all start, working for God right, where we are may, you follow, God's call as these, men did in years. One by. You. The. 16th century was populated, by some of the greatest minds in religious, history Luther. Calvin. Swingley, Knox, Latimer.
Ridley, Kremlin, and sitting, comfortably, amongst, this group of luminaries, was William Tyndale translator. Of the English, Bible tinder, was born in Gloucestershire, in, 1494. In a small village called North, nibbly, marked. Today by, this monument, overlooking, the, village. He. Was educated at, Oxford and completed, his BA in 1512. And his MA in 1515. Before, coming here to Cambridge, University. Where he met Dutch scholar, Erasmus. Who was teaching, Greek, Tyndale, wanted to translate the Bible into English but, no one in England was willing to undertake such, a daring task. Since. 1408. The Oxford Commission had forbidden the translation. Of the Bible into the English language even. Prohibiting. Its use in the training, curriculum for, preachers coach, Elias, a notorious. People theologian. Had this perspective. The, New Testament, translated, into the language of the people is in truth the food of death the fuel of sin the, veil of malice, the pretext, of false Liberty the protection, of disobedience. The corruption. Of discipline, the depravity, of morals, the termination, of Concord, the death of honesty. The, wellspring, of vices the disease of virtue the, instigation, of rebellion, the milk of pride, the, nourishment, of contempt. The death of peace, the, destruction, of charity, the enemy, of unity, the murderer, of truth. Immersed. In such a climate Tyndale, encountered, a learned friend who said we were better without, God's laws than the Pope's to, which Tyndale, responded. I defy, the Pope and all, his laws if, God, spare, my life in many years I will cause a boy that drive at the plow shall, know more of the scriptures than thou doest. Forbidden. To work in England, Tyndale, travelled through Europe from. Hamburg, to Cologne to, worms to, Antwerp using. The Greek and Hebrew text to craft a masterpiece. Of the English language, time. And time again the, papacy, tried to stop his work but, the Lord watched, over, his, servant, one, account tells us how the Bishop, of Durham seeking. To hinder, his work brought all his, Bibles, but this milli provided, him with the money he needed to, produce a larger, number of better, quality Bibles. Tyndale. Contributed. As much to the scholarship, of English, literature, as Shakespeare. And Chaucer producing. Many of the translations, of the Bible that we use today in, fact much of the King James Bible produced. 60, years later was, taken, almost verbatim, from. Tyndale's. Bible, phrases. Such as the, Spirit, is willing but the flesh is, weak Oh death, where is, thy sting and, Sikhi. First all these, came, from, William Tyndale, today. There are two remaining, copies, of Tyndale's, Bible one. Of which is here in the British Library, purchased. For 1 million, pounds and accessible. To view free, of charge. Sadly. Tinder was betrayed, by Henry, Phillips in Antwerp. Who feigned friendship.
In Order, to gain Tyndale's, trust and betrayed, him two guards as he was leaving his, house he, was taken to a castle in the ward Belgium, condemned. As a heretic, strangled. And burned, to death in, 1536. His last words, were Lord. Opened. The king of England's. Eyes within. One year of his death a Bible, was placed in every parish church throughout the whole of England by order, of the King. The. Poignant, Christian, song tells us martyrs. Blood stains each page, they, have died for, this faith hear, them cry through, the years or hear, these words and hold, them dear the. Word of God has come to us at such great cost, may, we not treat it flippantly, haphazardly. But may we treasure it and commit, to study and share. God's, Word each day. You. St.. Andrews today is famous, for two things number. One it's the home of golf and number, two it's the town where Prince William met Kate whilst he was studying at university, but it's the spiritual, history of this town that is most interesting, and significant, st., Andrews was a town in the 1500s. Where the first Protestant Scottish, martyr was burned for his faith his, name was Patrick Hamilton, and he is remembered, by a spot, with his initials on the ground. But. We fast forward to the Year 1538, when Cardinal David, Beaton took over and made, it his mission to catch a reformer, by the name of George Wishart, and stamp, out what he saw as the growing heresy, in Scotland, at the time George was only, a young man 25, years, old and he stayed one step ahead of the Cardinal and escaped, and went to Cambridge, University. Where he met with Hugh Latimer and together, they went on to Bristol he, was only there for about six months, when he got into trouble again and had to flee the city. He. Went to Switzerland where he spent three years travelling, to various cities including. Geneva, and Zurich and he had the chance to meet with John Calvin, and bullinger where he was able to study and crystallized, his views, on the gospel in, 1542. He, returned to the British Isles and went to Cambridge, where he taught at the University, after, teaching for one year he then returned to Scotland where, he began to preach the gospel in cities around the country. He. Went to Montrose to teach the book a Roman and then he went to Dundee beaten. Followed, him there but we shot hid from him then he went to Perth to, preach and then to err the, archbishop. Followed, him but he could not catch him he, then went back to Dundee, and a priest by the name of John whiten, was sent to kill him but the crowd turned, against. Him George. Wishart, was much loved, by his countrymen, as he didn't just preach but had a very practical, side, to his ministry in one, instance, in the city of Dundee when the plague broke out most, people fled the city but, George Wishart, went into the city so he could care for the sick and the suffering. Towards. The end of his life he met, John Knox who was a young man at the time and would go on to be a great leader in his own right in, the Scottish, Reformation. He started, out essentially, as a bodyguard, for George Wishart carrying. A two-handed. Sword with him as he traveled around the country they, built a strong bond as teacher, and student, until, finally, Cardinal, beaten with, 500. Soldiers captured. George Wishart, John. Knox wanted, to follow George into captivity, but, was told to stay with the word one.
Is Sufficient. For sacrifice. He. Was brought here to the castle and put, here in this C tower where, he was imprisoned he, was then tried and as he was tried he answered all his accusations. From the Bible they, were not satisfied, and he was condemned, to death outside, the castle walls the initials, G W are imprinted, on the ground marking, the exact spot, where George. Wisher gave his life at the young age of 33. Two. Things we learn from this man number, one in his ministry and life he was incredibly, faithful, and was ministering, to the sick and suffering as he traveled around the country number, two we learn about the power and importance. Of preaching, how, in two years as he traveled around the country he caused great, revival, making, a lasting, change and impression, here in this country the thing that stands out to me the most though is how young he was that, he died at the age of 33, he, was a teacher at Cambridge, at the age of 29. He, gave his youth to God and God, used him in a powerful way, God, is calling for young people again today, young, people who would give their talents, and their gifts to him and allow, themselves to, be used in a powerful way. George. Wishart, was now dead but, the story was, not over, shortly. After his death some of his friends gained entry, to the castle and took, Cardinal, beat and kept it they put him as a prisoner here in the sea tower the same place where John Knox commented, that many of God's children had, been imprisoned, for their faith. Some. Of cardinal Beaton's friends, then try to dig a tunnel under, the wall which can be seen to this day but, they were unsuccessful. Cardinal. Beaton was, then killed and hung, out the window of this tower while, they had the first protestant. Church service in scotland here in saint andrews castle not, everything, the reformers did in the past is to be imitated, or was right, ultimately, we have to look to Jesus as our example in all things. John. Knox would later join these believers and was here in the castle when he was captured by the french navy along. With some others he was sentenced to work as a galley slave and did, this for 19 months then, he was released no one really knows why because, it was not normal custom, to release a galley slave but, providence must have been in his, favour he, returned to Scotland but, soon after he went to England where, he spent some time with Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of. Canterbury, and then he also went to berwick-upon-tweed, where. He preached and ministered, there. Soon. After, marry a staunch, Catholic, came to the throne in 1553. He, left Britain and went to Europe where, he settled for several, years in Switzerland, he. Spent time with John Calvin, and his powerful reformer. Alvin, would have a huge impact, on his life on, his theology and on the reforms, that he would later lead here. In the country, of Scotland. In, 1559. He returned, here to Scotland, this time for good and took, over as the minister here in st., Giles Cathedral becoming.
Its First Protestant. Minister, whilst, here they abolished, the mass and repudiated, people. Jurisdiction. As. Well. As preaching, he was also instrumental in, writing. Some important, documents there helped to frame the church he, along with five other, men incidentally. All named, John, wrote, the Scots confession, of faith which, explained, what the Church believes and, the Book of Common order, which replaced, the prayer book and was officially adopted by the church in, 1560. Despite. The fact that he travelled extensively throughout. His life to different parts of Britain and Europe, he always maintained, a deep passion, for Scotland. Famously, saying once give, me Scotland, or I die he. Always kept, in his mind his, home country a place that, had been laid upon his heart, I remember, once as a young minister, being told your calling, is where your burden, lies maybe, today you find, yourself, in a place a town, or a country that's, not the exact, place that the Lord has called you to minister stay, faithful to him work, where, you are and pray, that the Lord would open, doors to minister, where your burden, truly, lies, for. John Knox that was Scotland, his homeland for, you it may not be your hometown, or your home country, but it may be a far-off foreign. Mission, land wherever, it is be, faithful, to God and follow, as he, leaves. You.