Shoucheng Zhang: "Quantum Computing, AI and Blockchain: The Future of IT" | Talks at Google

Shoucheng Zhang:

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Thank. You so much dye it's a great pleasure, for me to come here to Google but, also a special, privilege, to be introduced by daya of a friend but also we. Have been constantly exchanging, ideas and, today. I'd like to talk to you to talk to you what about I view, as the, three frontiers, of information. Technology, for the future quantum. Computing, artificial, intelligence and blockchain but, especially, also, the possible symbiosis among, these three major trends I think, in these days in the world there are many experts, in each one of those, subjects. But I think really exciting. Opportunity, is possibly, the conference, or the symbiosis, among. These three, major, trends of the future of the information technology let me starts with a story of the recent, scientific, discovery. A recent, discovery but it had a long history so a. Lot of great discoveries, in. Science also. Relates to some deep changes, in philosophy, we, seem to live in a world of opposites a world, of dualism, we. Have whenever, we have positive numbers we have negative numbers when we have credits we have deaths we, have being and young good and evil angels, and demons, but. In the natural world there's also a counterpart, to these philosophy. Of the opposites, or the duality, so in, 1928. The, great and perhaps one of the greatest theoretical. Physicists, of all time, Paul, Dirac was. Trying to unify, Einstein's. Theory, of special relativity, with. Quantum mechanics in. The process of doing so he was doing some mathematical derivations, he. Had to encounter, operation. Of square, root and then, he remembered from, his high school days that, the square root of 9 is not just 3 because, 3 times 3 is 9 but. Also minus, 3 because, minus 3 times 2 minus 3 is also 9 so, whenever you take a root you, have to take both the positive, and the negative roots, at. That time was very perplexing. What that negative root means and, he actually. In one brain stroke, of genius, he, predicted, that for every matter in the world that's the opposite, matter or the antimatter and, so, when you visit Westminster. Abbey you can try to find the PAC commemorating. The famous Dirac, equation. Until. 2012. One of the most humbling experience. In my life is to receive the Paul Dirac a medal. So. Just I said whenever. You take the square root you have the positive branch, and a negative branch and he, brilliantly. Interpreted. The mid-, branch, to. Be a universal. Law of nature that, for every particle there's, in the universe there's, also a antiparticle. Except. At a time everybody. View this as a beautiful, equation, but. Except at a time of 1928. Where, he made this prediction. There, was simply no antimatter so, for example the antimatter of the electron, will be something that has a positive charge but, there's a mess the, proton has the opposite, charge to the electron, but has 2,000. Times more the mass as, the electron, so, nobody believed him then. You know what he said he said my equation, is so beautiful, you guys simply just go look for it and. People. Did and he was lucky and five. Years later in cosmic, ray radiation. It's very hard to naturally, produce their town Earth but in the cosmic ray radiation, people. Discovered, antimatter, namely the positron, which has exactly, the same mass but the opposite charge of the, electron so, I think this is the one of the greatest. Prediction. Of all humanity. That. Something, conceived of beauty also turn out to be true. Today. We actually use this antimatter, in medical, devices a famous, medical imaging technique called PET scan positron. Emission, tomography was. Actually based on this anti particle the, positron. It. Also captured, the imagination, of Hollywood, so, there's, the, famous novel, and the movie of, da Vinci Code many of you have read the book and saw. The movie but there's also a sequel to it's called, Angels & Demons also played by also, a book by them prompt I also played by Tom. Hanks, basically, the novel depicts the. Epic. Struggle, between between, angels and demons culminating. In the halation, of particles, and antiparticles, so, actually it's the highest, information. Density one can possibly, achieve anywhere. In the universe if, you have antimatter, and which, matter the energy they release is, the most powerful they can ever, be but, it's also a fun, analogy.

Just, As we have NGO we have daemon whenever, we have positive a particle, we have the opposite. Antiparticle. But. Human, curiosity. Didn't stop there so, after the rocks prediction. Viewed. As one of the greatest, prediction, of all time, curiosity. Didn't stop there so there was a another, great theoretical. Physicist, but somewhat, elusive. During. His time, named, Ettore, Maya Rana and, he asked a curious question could there be matter which doesn't have and he made or a particle, which, is its own antiparticle. Particle. Which would, not have its own I will not have antiparticle. Is its own antiparticle is, that possible. So, he asked this question, and he also wrote down a beautiful equation which. Described it but. This time he was not so lucky nobody. Believed, him and nobody found it so. He. Actually got very, disappointed. About that, so, everything's, then it became a mystery, in fundamental. Science so we have in, fundamental. Science a most, wanted list for example, at the list included, what is called a God particle, or Higgs, boson, but in 2012, it. Was discovered, inserting. The laboratory, in Geneva there's. Also the gravitational, wave Einstein. Was less lucky, than Dirac Dirac, only, his, prediction, only took five years for, it to be experimentally confirmed but. Einstein's prediction of, gravitational. Wave took more than 100 years only. Two years ago was discovered, was, Einstein, predicted a 100, years ago so this is such a list and and, also something called the Dark Matter particle which, we still try to find but, also, very, much on the top of the list yes this. Very interesting. Concept of my, araña Fumiya which is a particle which does not have antiparticle. Or is its own antiparticle, but. It's more mysterious maybe, among all those on. The most-wanted list, maybe my Rana for me is most mysterious because, not only my runner Lamia has not been found like. I said he was very disappointed, when nobody believed in, his prediction. And he. Was Italian and, he boarded. A ferry from. Palermo. -, from. Naples. To Palermo like he never reappeared from. That very right so, you become a deep deep mystery, and this, year is exactly, the 80 year of his disappearance. But, we also have some good news to report even. Though he, himself was never found his, particle, now has been found and that's the highlight of my. Talk. Today so, so. Then because, he simply wrote down the equation but so he didn't tell people where to find it so that's why it took 80, years so, nobody knew, where to find them but, my theory, group has stanford predicted. Where, and how. To find this mystery particle, and seeing. During. The. Period of 2010. And 2015. Or. Theory group wrote three, theoretical, papers first, one exactly, to predict, were actually. Quite. Surprisingly. It's not true for this particle to be found in some huge accelerators. But it could be in a tabletop kind, of experiment, very, much like a semiconductor. Device people will usually use so, it's a material called a topological insulator. That I already mentioned introduction. Something I discovered. Ten years ago but, they put, it into it some magnetic dopants. Also the topological insulator, can be something that business theory right and there, you can put in some magnetic dopants, which, could be chromium, and, then on top of it you apply a superconductor. So we predict that in this system, you can find these mysterious my runner phobia, but, that's not good enough not only you have to predict, where to find it but to what to measure in order to find it and there, I think a common sense can, even guide us so, somehow the. Regular particle, is like two sides of a coin whenever. You have the upside you have the downside, whenever, you have the positive particle, you have the antiparticle, associated. With it but, it's my Ronna particle. Is only, only. One side it is only a particle but no antiparticle. So in some vague sense it is half of a usual particle, so this concept, of 1/2 would be very very important, in the, later part of my talk about, quantum computers, so, somehow this Marana, particle, is half of a regular particle, so, but regular particle has some phenomena, of their conductance, like the resistance, or conductance we, usually, measure can, be quantized, in units of, 0 1 2 3 and, so on so, they behave like integers, in. Quantization. As depth so, we. Once had had. A, Eureka moment that, if the Marana particle, is in some sense half of a regular particle, then, they should display, some plateau at half, integer, steps namely, at 1/2 3 1/2 and so on and so forth so, that became, our prediction, that in. This system, you can experimental. A construct but what you measure is this 1/2 step. And last, year in a close collaboration, with experimental. Colleagues. At UCLA, UC. Davis and UC, Irvine so, they exactly, constructed. This system, as we erect, a proposed and they, perform the measurement exactly. According to a theoretical, prediction, and lo, and behold, besides. This, integer, step at 1 something.

At 0 you, see there's a step at 1/2, and this 1/2, is a crucial, idea that, my, Arana particle, being half of a regular particle, you should display was regular, particle display, integer, quantized step my, runner particle, should give you half quantized, step, so, that is really the smoking. Gun it was, celebrated. Last. Year with the publication, in the science magazine, so. In that very exciting, moment I remember, the famous novel. And famous. Movie, I saw, about angels, and demons and I, proclaimed, that, is as if we discovered, a paradise, with only NGOs and no demons so, I call this the NGO particle. So. Now what is it good for, so today. Or. Classical. Computers. Are already very very powerful. But, they are good at doing some things and not good at doing some other things so. If I give you very two very large numbers, and ask the computer, to multiply, they do this in a split, second on Google couch you, were maybe a nano nano a second, but, if you give a number and to ask the computer with a dead number effect arises into, two other numbers giving. The example for example 15 is equal to, 3 times 5, but 11 cannot, be vectorized as a product, of two numbers the only thing you can do just to say 11 is 1 times 11 which doesn't, mean very much, but. Then if I give you a very very large number and if you want to ask whether that were in the large number, it. Can be expressed. Just like 15 as, the product, of two other numbers or it is more like 11, which cannot be expressed as, a product of two numbers the, computer, the, classical computer will have a very very hard time to answer this question the, only way it can do is to, do an exhaustive search it tries to divide this very large number by first, by 2 then, by 3 then 5 by 7 and, so on so forth and then, it takes forever to to, - to, do this exhaustive, search so. What you live do you think about maybe, all of the most important, computational. Problems what we were like a computer, to do with, Google cloud with all the data what, we would like to do is to find some optimal solutions, or something so, when we try to find optimal solution we basically have to enumerate all, possibilities. Computer. All of them maybe there's some function. Optimizing. Function associated with it and you try to find maybe the least path or biggest. Profit, or something like that but. You also have to do an exhaustive search, and that takes very, very long time so, that's why computer. Has a lot to advanced, but. Then enter, the function world what, is the mysterious, world of the punctum world. So. If I have two, slits and I. Use a classical. And to randomly, shoot through these two slits then, obviously a bullet either at, one given time goes through the right or it goes through the left and, on, the back of year two you will see two blobs one, coming, from the right and the other coming, from the left but. Not so if you try to shoot elementary. Particles, through the double slits so. Somehow on, the backgrounds, you don't see two blobs associate. Was the right or one associated was the left you, actually observe a rather intricate. Interference. Pattern. And that, pattern can, only be explained, if, the particle, went through double slits at exactly, the same time it. Went through both the right and the left at exactly, the same time if it didn't do so and if, you knew which, way it went, it wouldn't, lead. To this intricate, interference. Pattern so, somehow the, quantum, worlds the, mysterious, quantum world is, parallel, at one, given time a particle, is both going through the right and going through the left and. Then, people, somehow, started, thinking that's this very difficult problem the, computer, classical, computer has a very difficult time to solve namely. Has to go through C, really it's an exhaustive, search of all possibility, maybe, it can be done by a quantum, computer which is intrinsically. Parallel, so, basically then it can search through all these possibilities, exactly. At the same time and give, you one results, in one step. Of computation, so, there were truly truly be wonderful, and will increase, computational. Power in, such a tremendous, way, so. But in order to construct, such a quantum computer you, first need to have the basic, elementary. Unit which, will be called a quantum bit or a qubit. So. A classical, bit as you have on your classical, computer. One. Bit it's either 0 or 1 but. Just like a quantum, mechanical particle. Can go through double slits at the same time a quantum.

Bit A qubit, somehow. Is a linear superposition between. 0 and 1 it's neither exactly, 0 no, exactly, 1 somehow he lives in, this mysterious. Superposition. State, between, 0, & 1, so in order to do a quantum, computer you need necessary. Have to construct, such, a elementary. Qubit, a quantum bit but. Being quantum mechanical, is also very very fragile in the classical, world if you are very curious to say wow is it really zero is a really, one you try to observe it they immediately, clutch two zero one and you loose this mysterious. Quantum, concept, so, therefore in, all the most of the approaches, that has been proposed, to. Construct, a quantum computer it's, has, a lot and lots of arrows these qubit, it's very very fragile and very unstable and, it's. Very easily collapsing. To a classical, qubit. So therefore it's a it's, a daunting. Number that for one use for logical, qubits you have to use ten to even, perhaps, 100. Error correcting. Bit to, correct a, one, use for qubits, and that's, obviously, it's very very, very difficult, to scale and that's why we don't yet have a truly functional, quantum. Computer, yet, which, can factorize a very big number now. Enter, my, scientific. Discovery. So we discover this mysterious, a very, interesting angel, particle, which, is half, of a regular particle, so, then for, so it's a little bit complicated. Scientific, diagram, but, somehow when you enter, in with one qubit, which is a regular particle, it can, be immediately split, into two, of this Marana vermeer or these, angel, particles. So, then each being, half so one, qubit you already think is the minimal thing you can have but, one qubit, is now stored, in to Angel particles, so, just like one qubit entering here it's partially, start here and partially stopped there, then. If you have local perturbation. It's, very hard for local, perturbation, to, destroy. The, global, these. Two and your particles, together function, as one qubit so, it's very very hard for local. Perturbation, to destroy, this qubit and therefore. It's a very very robust way of doing computation, in. Fact in this experiment, measurement, what, is happening is that this angel particles, are reading with each other so, if you have some, lines and if you try to braid them that, is kind of a digital operation, if you either braid it or you didn't, whereas, in order most other approaches, to quantum computing it's almost an analog, computation. It you can make very easily make little, errors but, if you do what is called a topological operation. Of braiding, then. Then. It's actually very very robust, so, you now approach one.

Qubit Is just one qubit you don't need error correcting qubits, so, these are still after, our discovery, it's is still kind of a new approach so, it's coming, up but, compared, to other approaches. Which may, already have many many qubits but a lot of them are serving as error correcting, qubits, to one useful qubit, I believe, or approach were eventually scale, are much much faster because it's one-to-one. So. This is the. First part of my talk about, quantum, computer but, now let me switch to the second part of my talk, which, is about artificial. Intelligence. When. We look at the human history, it is or. It. Has a long kind. Of, Earth. It, took a very long time for the most intelligent, species. To. Develop on, earth and it took maybe three million years of evolution, but. Finally we became the dominating, species, but. Now we actually face was so our challenge may be a more intelligent species. Namely AI could. Be some, emerging, but, era has been developing, maybe since the 60s so why we. Suddenly have this, such. Rapid, increase, in the, progress, of AI, so, it's Mason basically. Due to the conference, of three, major trends in. Computation. A1, is the most law so, the most law basically, is about computational. Power so, it is it. Doubles, the computational. Power doubles, every 18 months according, to the progress of the most law so, now most. Law is facing, some challenging, that's the bad news but, the, good news is that too maybe we'll have something so, much more powerful, when, then, the most law predicts. Namely, we have Moore's, law has being a quantitative. Incremental. Increase even though it's very very fast but, Ponton computer, can be one quantum jump in the computational. Power because, of this massive, parallelism. Associated. With quantum, computing so on the horizon, were has see both chanting the in terms of computational, power we see both challenges, to the classical, Moore's Law as the, device gets smaller and smaller but, we also see tremendous hope maybe, quantum, computer can can arrive, at a scene. And so when you try to search among. Optimization. Problem you came to one, search for. One rather than a exhaustive, search in, a serial fashion. So. This is something, on the horizon that could really, fundamentally. Be a game-changer but. The other reason why artificial, intelligence, today is exploding. Is because, was the arrival of the Internet and the Internet of Things you, provided. A massive, amounts, of data. And. Machines. Need to learn and they learn only from epic, Terra and. The other is the rapid progress, of the AI algorithm. And this, is, also one. Of the main reason for example the deep neural Nets which, is providing. The main kind. Of engine behind this rapid, growth so. In the field of AI we, always ask this question, when would someday AI surpass, humans, and what, is the objective test so. We're. All. Totally. Amazed so to see the progress Google, has made. Announced. Two years ago about, deep, mind having. Alphago, which, beat a human player in, playing the game so. Aunt I was very fortunate that. Our son Brian. Was also at. Working, at the deep mind these. Kind of projects at the same time at that time so. When. We asked this question so I'd like to revisit a question, that we always have been asking namely. The so-called Turing, tests when, is the objective, tests, that, AI really, passed the human mind so Turing. Proposed, the following test long time ago he says that if we have a human and. Then we're having, a conversation with. A. Something. Behind a curtain either, another human or a, a I machine, and if, you talk for one long, day and afterwards. You cannot tell the difference whether, it's a human behind or whether. It's a machine behind that. May be the day when a I really, reached to, human, intelligence. But I think it's not an objective, test, so first, of all because, the human brain it took a long long time to evolve and a lot of these human. Brain. Has a lot of irrational, emotional, components, and maybe. It can not be so imitated, by the Machine maybe also totally unnecessary for. The machine to imitate, every. Human irrationality, that's. Possible, because, one. Strategy is you talk, to the machine in totally, irrational way, maybe, a rational, machine will be very hard to food a human head to to, see that it's actually a human so. But then what about the Google's, success a deep mind of our goal which, is a game of human and looks, little bit more objective but, still it is a game invented by humans, why should. Intelligence. Test be based. On a game that's, invented, by human so what will be the most objective, test that AI really. Reached, human. Intelligence so. I like to have a proposal, which could possibly replace the, Turing, test and, then, I asked her to play.

A Game of nature namely, ask the machine to, make a scientific, discovery and before. The humans do and maybe. And then we can objectively, such, as a prediction, of my, honor firm young gravitational. Wave some, of the greatest prediction. Of the human scientific, mind and see, if the machine can make a prediction, before. The humans do and when were to an objective experiment. And verified the prediction. We, say this is the day when, machine, surpassed, human, intelligence. So. Can we see whether this is possible or not so I am. A usually. A theoretical, physicist, but I for, the first time I wrote. Rai. Which. Will soon be published so. Basic idea is that let's pick so, first of all we haven't made the progress of making a prediction that humans has not made but. We are idea still be winder history to say that, if humanity, is still at a point where, one great discovery, hasn't yet been made whether. The machine at, the same level, can make that scientific. Discovery. So. We know some great predictions. In theoretical, physics such, as gravitational, wave, Dirac. Antiparticle. And so on but, maybe the greatest scientific, achievements. In chemistry, isn't Mendeleev's. Periodic. Table, so Mendeleev. Looked. At all the chemical, compounds, and he, discovered, in. A brain stroke of genius, the organizing. Principle, of the world namely that, the order materials, that, we see can, be reduced. To. Elements. But these elements organize in itself into. A periodic, table so at that time he, there's. Only some. Limited number of elements, discovered, and whence, he organized, them into a periodic table he, sees some host in the periodic, table and he says oh these elements, must be there you guys look for it so, there was the brilliant, prediction. And I think certainly I will rank this as the greatest, scientific, discovery, in chemistry, maybe of all humanity. So. The question we like to ask ourself is that if we rewind, history that. We. Are in the stage that, periodic. Table has not yet been discovered but. If we feed all the, chemical. Compounds, to a machine what, machine be, able to come up with the discovery, of the periodic table so, that's. Maybe is quite related to all the AI work that's going on at Google. And. We actually call or. Algorithm. At Inuvik so. Once you see the name you immediately see that there must be a lot of connection, to maybe. All the work you guys are doing here namely. This or, the Google Translate, or the natural. Language processing is. Based on a algorithm, called, words to, two, met words, into. A vectorial, form and once, you map words into a vectorial form you, can understand, the. Machine the vector actually encodes. Some semantic, meaning of. The word itself and then, it can discover certain relationships, so, hard as were Tuvok work basically try, to understand, a word in, the context, of other, sentences, if, two words, often occur, together like, king and queen in one sentence the machine will understand, maybe in bacterial, space they're, somehow close to each other so our, idea is, to borrow, this, kind of idea from, the natural language processing and, try to see if it is possible to be used to, make scientific, discoveries, so. We're basically just, like Google. Here would feed all the corpus. Of, texts. Into a machine using, word to back and then discover the meaning of the words and then do translation, and so on so forth we basically feeds, in a totally, unsupervised. Way or, the, list of all chemical, compounds, to, the machine and to see whether the machine can come up with the organizing, principle, and lo, and behold the. Machine or, algorithm, discover the periodic, table because, the periodic table can be viewed as nothing but a tool dimensional. Vector ER arrangements, of other elements but if we can do something like atom, to Veck it, will all similarly, map each, element. Into. Some, some. Vectorial. Form and the, when you collapse this to two dimension, you will exactly, discover, the periodic, table so for example, like. Let's seeing a large corpus, of text, whenever, you see King you see Queen a lot the co-occurrence, a lot but, in, chemistry whenever. You see NaCl. You see KCl, a lot so, you somehow, the machine will understand in a and C and K may be very related, to each other, so in factorial, space there, must be close to each other so based on by borrowing the ideas for natural language processing we. Actually could organize. Its them in totally unsupervised, fashion, the machine actually discovered, the periodic, table so I think we're getting into a very very exciting, time there. That's one. Of the greatest scientific, discovery, can, at least be replicated, by a machine discovery, without, any supervision, whatsoever, but. Once these algorithms. Start, to work then, we can use it to discover new materials, and possibly. Be a, user to discover, new drugs before.

The Humans do. So. Now let me move to the third. Stock pic of my. Of. My talk today and namely, about the blockchain and maybe some, of you are already wondering, what AI, in, quantum computing and blockchain can possibly have, anything in common with each other so, basically, the Internet has always has, provided a tremendous value in. As a communication. Tool to, to. For all of us to communicate, but. Then we have to at some point we have to exchange values, over the Internet but. Whenever we have to exchange value over the Internet we have to agree on a common standards, of value, so therefore the most important, thing when, you try to move to the next stage of the internet development, possibly. Moving into the world of finance for example. The. Key essence of finance is to, have, some consensus. About a, value the, reason why we use goat previously. Is because, compared. To something like Apple, as, a medium of exchange it's because everyone can agree on what one ounce of gold actually means we, can do position measurement to determine. Its content and quality but, it's very hard to do it for one Apple, because there's so many different kinds of apples. So it's not suitable, as a medium, of exchange so, therefore the, key element. Of a, medium of exchange is, consensus. So, if I have very broad distribution, about. The value then it's not suitable to use as a media exchange if we all agree on the value reaching. Consensus, then, it is extremely. Valuable so. The internet taught us one very, important thing is to namely to do things in a distributed fashion but, if they have a very distributed, network how can they possibly agree, on something, so, previously, in human economy, we always thought there has to be some centralized, entity which, is to control a lot of it and get people to agree some. Values, but. When you actually observe the natural world there, is a way for the natural world to reach consensus, so let me give you one example out, of physics, for. Example where. Every day when you walk up and. Walk towards your refrigerator, to get a glass of milk or something you, people usually like to stick a magnet on their, refrigerator so, how does a magnet, really, work so, actually, all materials. Consists of electrons, and electron, works like a compass, it has a North Pole and a South Pole so electron, actually works like, a methods, but, the most of the time they, don't agree on the direction to point to so they all pointing in random directions and, therefore, globally. Macroscopically, they, don't behave like a magnet, but. The magnet their sticks on your refrigerator, somehow. Miraculously. A consensus, has been reached or electrons. Decide to point in the same direction and, that. Is happening without any centralized, entity telling, electrons with what to do somehow, there's. The mechanism, of protocol. Of exchange, somehow, they, miraculously agree. To a point one direction. So, details about, something. Very very profound about, the net natural, world to agree. On something, is what is called a low entropy state and to, be disordered is in a high entropy, state the. Natural trend of the world is to gradually. Always, the entropy has to increase over time the world always becomes more more disordered, but, somehow in a subsystem you, can actually reach hung high consensus, reduce, entropy, but then the Caesaria has to there has to be a cost you, have to dump the extra entropy, somewhere else so, it's consensus. Can't happen in some, self-organized. Distributed. Way but, there has to be a cost associated, with it that seems, consensus, is a state of low entropy you have to dump the extra, entropy somewhere, else yet, I think is the fundamental explanation, of, why blockchain, is working so, blockchain, has distributed, the world of computers. And the early approach to, have managing, a distributed, system of computers, is to ask whether, there's some centralized. Master algorithm. Deterministic, algorithm, possible, which, will coordinate, and. And. Direct. All these distributed. Computers. Even though some of them have. Very long latency very. Broad distribution of latency and some one of them can't, even be hacked and behaved maliciously, whether, this is still in all these circumstances. Master. Deterministic. Algorithm, possible, to tell all these computers. Exactly. What to do and reach consensus, then. There's a famous result in computer, science called official, inch Patterson, theorem which, actually, is a no-go result which, says such, a master, deterministic, algorithm, is not possible, so.

This Actually is the very reminds. Me of the central result of physics namely, the entropy always have to increase if, such kind, of a master algorithm exists. Actually, we have a name for it it's called Maxwell's, demon so, somehow this demon, has very high intelligence for example, if you have a compartment, of a gas and you, have a war dividing, between them and you have a little hole the, Maxwell's. Demon when you sees a high energy particle founder left it opens, the shutter ladies through and to low energy particle. Coming through, and then closest. A shutter and doesn't match so then, if this demon can do all this choreograph. In. Efficient, way then, little bit later this site will be much hotter than this side and then you can extra some walk to it so, such centralized, entity to coordinate, will really be. Able to extract. Energy out of nowhere and this. Obviously is not possible, so, I like to make the analogy of the Fisher Lynch Patterson, theorem with the concept of the Maxwell demon, none, of them are possible, the master, algorithm is not possible, and Maxwell, demon is not possible, so, what's it the solution the solution is provided, by the blockchain so if you want. The. Entire distributed. Internet to agree on some temporal, order, which is the most crucial thing for financial, transactions, which transaction, happen first which, transaction, happens, later you, want to order machines, to vote but, voting at a cost by, solving, what is called a hash puzzle, only, those machine can which can solve a hash puzzle which is very deep culture soft but very easy to verify there, was some machine solve this hash puzzle every machine will agree that yes, this is true and we agree on this, temporal order so, it's such two szostak algorithm, and it actually, requires energy to. Compute, and to, reach. This hash puzzle so therefore in the self-organized, blockchain, consensus, mechanism, we reach consensus. Namely in a state of low entropy but, we dump two extra entropy, somewhere else through. The computation of the hash puzzle and that is very similar to what's happening the physical, world namely, we can in, principle reach, this state of consensus, of low entropy provided. If we dump extra, entropy somewhere else so, I really think this is really one of the most brilliant, invention. Of in, human history somehow. We can have, a natural, and objective, mechanism, in a distributed, world to reach consensus.

But, There's a cost to it namely, you have to do this mining work so, that the extra entropy, can, be dumped somewhere, else so. Once will you have this consensus, mechanism, I think, this offers, a great new opportunity. To. Last new kind of symbiosis, between, blockchain. And AI so. I talked about AI, be in conference, a magic conference of three major trends I alluded, to. To. The computational, power Moore's law and then possibly. Quantum computers, I also, talked about some new inventions. In the algorithm. But, what a AI needs the most is, to have data so, that AI can learn but. Right now oh data are, concentrated. As centralized, platforms. So that's very little incentive for individuals. To contribute. Data because they basically get. Nothing, in return and maybe their privacy could even be violated, so, I envision, the future of the world where, the ownership of that data should be completely, be. Returned to the individuals, so, all my personal data or my behavior data or my online data or my genomics data or, my medical records everything should, be owned. By the individual, and the privacy should be completely, protected, but. Then you say Wow then calculation, possibly realistic, if everybody, keeps their secret, private, and there. Is a beautiful thing called privacy, preserving, computation. And that, will make it possible to, have a data marketplace, so I first of all protected, all my privacy, data but, I can leak information, out, one, bit at a time totally, at mine control and such. A world will, be a data marketplace. There individually. So it's a peer-to-peer marketplace, where. Individually, under their private data and then, there, can, be a bidding and selling, process. Very. Selectively, control by. Performing, privacy, preserving data, marketplace. So. Such a future world of, of. Marketplace. Based. On one principle which I call in math way trusts and. That is possible. That it's. That. You can still preserve, privacy, but, still maintain. And. But still can't do a computation that. Only. Leaks, out very, very selectively, one in piece of information, at, a time so. The famous problem. Is called a secure multi-party computation, or, a millionnaire. Promise, so obviously. Private, wealth is very very private, people, don't like to reveal but, there could be so happened that two millionaires want to compare who is richer but without revealing to each other if they review to each other Wells. They have obviously. They. Will find out but leaks too much privacy data but, there's a computational. Protocol, called. Yass Yass, doubled, circuit, that, they can exchange particle, in the end of the day they only find out one bit of information namely. Who is richer without revealing anything, there's. A idea, of differential. Privacy namely. Adding noise to private. Data so. That they don't become individually. Identifiable. But, if I want to conduct a corrective, survey, I can, add noise in such a way that in the statistical. Aggregate the noise will cancel out so, the statistical, information is completely accurate but no not, much individual. Private data has been leaked because, there's so enough, noise that, individually. Identical, information. It's not there but, but. Overall. Over. Statistical. Information still accurate and then, there's also the idea of zero knowledge proof I, can prove to you for example that I solved, a very difficult game let's say the Sudoku, game but, I want to only give you one bit of information namely, I solve the game but, I don't want to reveal you my entire solution I want, you to keep on trying card and this is also possible through, the zero knowledge proof so.

There's Really a world, where, mathematics will, enter, economics, in a very sensual way in. Making, a data marketplace, possible, so that's why all of us were on or individual, data and then. Google. Cloud and all, these entities. Then, can compute, in. Centralized. They, can compute useful, statistical, information without. Revealing. Without. In having us to be revealed. This privacy death so. I really think about this world where, both AI and, and. Blockchain, combined, can, do great social. Good in this new era of crypto. Economic, science based, on in math we trust because. When you really think about what's, the problem with our society today is because there's discrimination. Against, minority, and there, is a fundamental of, our, society, but, when you really think about AI learning, let's say if my AI everything, is already working accurately, 90%. Of the time but, I want some extra data so that I can go, from 90%, to 99%. But. That I need is not yet another kind of data which looks very similar to all the previous that I have seen I want, data which is. Called to have high mutual, entropy, namely the data that's most distinct, and that, by definition is, owned by the minority. But. Then in such a data marketplace, I will be to the highest for. Those data which most. In. The minority so. Then the economic incentive. Structure, will be aligned or society, will be value, the minority, the most and. That's exactly, what we need to. Do social good, so finally, there's a vision that the ugly duckling, can somehow become a beauty, swamp, because, ugly duckling is not ugly it's different but, now, difference. Will be valid the most minorities. In this fear that a marketplace, will not be discriminated, against, so. I really see this wonderful, new world in. A conference, of three major trends quantum, computing AI and blockchain but, I also see, myself being, coming from academia, and. Opening. Interactions, with. Colleagues. In industry, we, really can enter a new world where, the latest scientific idea, it's really, really fascinating, and, totally, amazing, that these mathematical. Concepts, was, purely invented, by. Mathematicians. In a chat could. Turn out to be so useful so something, like number theory every. Day when we conduct, a transaction, using, HTTP. Uses, number theory in the most essential way so, this is a wonderful, new world where collaboration with, academia in the industry, can, really lead, to great, progress. As. I said the greatest opportunity, of, making. Progress is oftentimes see, a conference, of some, major trends, before. In anyone, who does in their specialized, area couldn't, see the overall, picture and I really think that the, symbiosis among, these three major trends will, be the defining. Characteristic. Of the future of information, technology, thank, you.

Should. I entertain, some questions. So. You talked about consensus. And how proof-of-work systems, achieve. Consensus. By distributing, and by increasing entropy yeah, how, does it how does that work. Yeah, so actually. I think in the end of the day there should always be some, trade-offs. So I think, find, a fan. I see, the future of the blockchain were out and those. Cryptocurrency. Will. Happen in some, what like or, what we have in the current world the current war will have m0, m1 m2 different. Layers so, I believe that the most fundamental layer. Universal. Currency should be completely, based on proof of work because, then the entropy that you dump is extreme, it's a totally, transparent not only it has to be there but there's also totally transparent, I think, that the most basic. And fundamental layer, proof of state will not work because. There's so much possibility of, collusion that you can lose something I'm chained but gain something off. Chain it, can be bribery and so on so, I think we're the, the what the true exciting thing about the block chain world is that at the most fundamental, layer there, can be something that's totally objective and, only, connects to the natural world namely energy, and not. So much about proof of state which human. Irrationality, can. Get involved but. I can't very well imagine I'm the higher layers then, they will prove a role but, the most fundamental layer, such like M 1 or M 0 should. Be, completely. Robust, and I still think the proof of work oh there's, something another. Approach which is called proof of space-time, proof, of space which, is based on storage, and that's, I think it's also it's. A quantifiable. Physical. Resources I think, that the most basically. Human. Things, shouldn't be involved. But. Maybe it is. So. I mostly, think about quantum. Computing may be useful for AI as a search algorithm, so. One, algorithm, for so. All these also. Happening so, one of the most, interesting. Approach. To AI, is the, gang right generative, adversary', and networks so, I don't mean these three trends all always, necessarily, have to work together they. Can actually leads, to progress by competing, with each other so in, one aspect quantum. Computing and blockchain some were competing with each other because a lot of the Crito. Encoding. Algorithm, could be broken by compton but on the other hand i also see that, kontin can help AI in. Doing, the most efficient, search and. That's, what also a I needs to do right. So. This relationship, is, very, much like a, symbiosis, in, your ecosystem, there's. Post competition. And collaboration. Yeah. We cannot just use a human, whale to decade they will always do the same thing they the I think in the process of competition. They will all become stronger. But. There's a metal layer of consensus, to be reached that's like I actually agree, into, this titute distributed, system yeah currently in crypto there's many fragmented.

Pools Of liquidity, quote unquote so how. Do you bridge that gap between where we are now in these so, I think for, example the relationship between the, Bitcoin, blockchain and lightining network very, much fits to this framework, of m1 m2, so. Basically. The, blockchain is completely objective based on proof of work and, so this is the try to reach the most universal. Consensus, among, parties which totally. Don't know each other and they need still need to transact, but, when you really think about business transaction maybe, two of us already have been working, very well as partners in, the last ten, years so why should we still. Use treat, each other as as, totally, strangers. So, what we can do is we enter into each other state. Channel. By, putting or collabos, on the blockchain but, we keep on doing very very fast trading, but we still saddle. Once a months so, this is I think exactly like the relationship, between m0. M1 m2, the, relationship, between writing and Bitcoin is like the relationship between m0, and m1 so. Where. You go above every layer, so. There should, be it's less robust, but. Will be more efficient, but, the trade-off comes, from our history that, were already had a history of trust so if you have business partners they already someone, know each other they, don't absolutely have, to use the most universal. Robust. Later, they, can establish. A higher layer where, they sacrifice. Some. Universality. But in, exchange for efficiency. Yes. No question on the NGO, particle. Yes intra particle is one that's not possible. Yeah. So it's a half a cube it sounds. Like identity, element, in your actual art brewing, or field right identity, element. You know when up is again it itself is a. Node, a more precise analogy, it's like a complex, number can be expressing. In terms of two real numbers so. The, complex. Number is like a particle, the complex conjugate, is like the antiparticle, if. You have the real number the complex conjugate is the same as itself okay. So the. NGO particle is more like a real number, I see how would you now we we think, about. Yeah. What. Would be, neutral. Yeah. Yeah so so yeah so, yeah, well. I think the analogy is just to say that that. So. Here there's one incoming, quantum. Qubits but. Actual, computation before, you do actual computation you're splitting them and by, splitting them they're already kind, of become. Non-local, their entangled. But the classical, noise is not entangle, so, it's impossible to destroy it using, classical noise so, that's why topological. Quantum computer, can be so, much more robust. Yes. Okay so combining. A couple of the themes of your talk if you're. Able to harness, the power of Kwan competing, and if we're able to then secure. Our data through, you. Know privacy, encrypted, ways of being able to share it yeah I'm. Wondering how you see the future of Google because. That seems like a truly, extant all threatened. Can spin up a quantum computer that can do extremely, efficient parallel search yeah and then they can harness everyone's, data I think the only way is to not resist changes. But embrace, changes, right. So. How do you see. Examples. Yeah yeah yeah actually. I have an answer to these. So. In. This, way. Actually. We, can do the following. Construct. That's. A for example my private data I want. To store it in a secure way but still be possible to do some computation so. We know Google Cloud, competes, with Amazon, clouds so, what we can do is that on the Amazon Cloud, I stole completely, random numbers but. On the Google cloud I store. My information. Plus rendering. Information as to our Amazon, Cloud so. If I really can't assume this these two entities are really competing very hot maybe there's no collusion and there's, no way they will secretly. Exchange, but, then you can use the protocol, of secure multi-party computation, to, do a computation which.

Gets, Only one result without, revealing any details, so. In, this world centralized. Entity still, is. Useful, but. In order for this to work you have to assume, that they are competing but. Not colluding, hi. I'm just wondering the use of trim entropy is interesting. Because it seemed to be this mysterious, thing but it's also reap resize that in thermodynamics. You can have a logarithm term in um in classical. Thermodynamics and, then you have Claude, Shannon with information, cereals that have an entropy and, then you make energy using, energy so kinda reminds me of like some. Sort of free energy yeah, yeah it's exactly yeah so so, I think the blockchain world is exactly, extracting, extracting, some free energy out, of it so, so. So you're basically, you're. Achieving something, but, whatever, you achieve the total amount of energy the useful, amount, it's. Only the energy you spent minus, the entropy that. You have to waste so, the subtract so a lot of you, actually today, still see a lot of white papers they, claim to do miraculous things and, these, kind of white papers reminds, me of the proposals, in the 18th century about perpetual mobili. I'm. Just I'm wondering can you extrapolate that now to further then you need a temperature term for the creature to work yeah yeah, yeah, yeah actually. Temperatures. Very naturally, if whenever, you have a conserved, quantity, as such. As conservation, of energy the. Temperature concept. Naturally, a boss, because anytime you have a random, but. Conserved system, it's. The most generic what is called a Boltzmann distribution so, the entropy their temperature, comes in, naturally, but, I think could why. I get, so excited about these is for the first time I see a convergence, between social, science and natural science yah-tchi. Provides. An anchor for the social, scientific, world namely. A defender, my idea, for IM, 0 m1 m2 the. Fundamental, anchor is, now entered, natural. Science we, can precisely, see the entropy it's wasted, so we can see why it consensus, reached and, then you can build more. Human things on top of it but the most basic layer is, now common, bitching social and the natural science and fundamentally. Reduces, to any energy, entropy a information. Thanks. So much for your time so. I think in your talk you were saying that you're gonna see this, first. Layer of one block chain and then further. Layers built on top of that so. What do you think of the various projects, or companies are trying to build their. Own block chain and how does that relate to, your talk so do you think well I think. Yeah. So there has to be some, unique, thing, that you provide so brought. A Bitcoin, blockchain and you seen are really different, so, because. As, a fundamental layer, of trust, you, actually don't want universal, Turing machine because, it can be maybe hacked but, then you have to do some more, transactions. On, top of it and then if, the room looks more natural so, the, evolution, of the blockchain world will, emulate. The, evolution. Of biological. Species you. See for King you see here different species, if. They, long enough maybe they become a different species but, there's always something fundamental, namely. All biological, beings, are based ourselves, so, this kind of basic constructs. Will not change but, to some organization, the, different organisms are different organizations of, different cells that, may change.

Yes. Thank. You for your time so my. Question is when do you think quantum, computing, would be in the application. Like. After, your, findings, and research and. When it is in the application do, you think it's gonna be in the hands of only, big certain, companies, or its visit scale yeah. So so, yeah so I think, quantum. Computing research most, ideally, should, be done in open environment. I, think because. Yeah. Let me just make this statement because I know a lot of companies are trying but. The very nature of company, trying is they, have to protect, shareholder, interest they have to protect a secret but. For something so powerful, and. Its implication, for Humanity, so I know that. I think it should be best, conducted, in Open University research. And. This is exactly what I'm doing so. My approach to quantum. Computer, I have, many, many temptations, to. Do a company, on quantum computers, but, I resisted, that. With. Or without my, invention. I. Think, if you use this old way of if, you use this way, of trying it, will take a long long time can, you just imagine for one useful qubit, you need 70, qubit to serve it I think, it wouldn't scale but, with this approach it was scale. Okay. I think we're about. Wrap. Up I'm gonna ask one last question okay. Yeah. Does it change any. Other. Requirements. Of quantum, computing, like such as, absolute. Zero temperature no, no no it's, a still operates a of most, proposals operated. At low temperature. Unfortunately. Yeah. Yeah, but, our approach could work at room temperature, if. A room temperature superconductors. Discovered. But. That hasn't been discovered yet, we. Wouldn't. Mind that maybe, for some very very hard computation. If you were there's really a qualitative, improvement. We. Can just go it to low temperature. You.

2018-06-13 10:49

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This is so amazing. The future world envisioned by Prof. Zhang as a theoretical physicist would really solve a lot of our social problems today. Couldn't be more excited.

Personally I like new blockchain platform Contract Vault, with their legal and smart contract and really solid tech. They are swiss based team so check them !

Quantum Computing + A.I. + Blockchain + IoT I prepare to celebrate the birth of our new GOD.

Very, very good talk. One of the best I've ever seen. Partly because of the science in it, but mainly because Prof. Shoucheng Zhang is such an amazing teacher. My knowledge in physics is at high school level at best and yet I understood practically everything he was talking about.

when lambo

wen moon

Interesting! However, Quantum computers will be able to crack any password instantly (see 14:41). Rather than a large number replace with your password - the world has become instantly insecure! Interesting indeed.


The Funny Thing is , on the Global scale White are actually the minority. So this Tech if applied on global scale will benefit white people the most lol

Rich people are also the minority, as are leaders of countries.

So in his 'computation of the hash puzzle' example around 36:00, the 'dumping the extra entropy somewhere else' would then be the failed hash calculations, if I understand his example correctly. What does everyone else think?

Future Finance is Family Friendly!!! I'm a poor cajun from southwest louisiane, but i'm pretty sure we're on the same page. A thousand thank yous for sharing such uplifting, pertinent information. Here's my family and I doing our best to sum up a similar sentiment

the (petite) human element

nice video bro

Here is another talk from Professor Shoucheng on blockchain technology. He was a speaker for GDIS Summit 2018 in Silicon Valley:

data marketplace is comparable to distributed ledger? theoretical physicist derives elementary particles empirically using word2vec? help/

Wow, I’m so excited about the future

just add crispr

Google = evil

Are you scared ???

Yash = penis

Anthony Russano = idiot nobody on the internet who supports the thing he hates with views and comments like a fucking moron.

Here's The Must Trusted Electronic Currency Exchange Internet-Service With The Best Exchange Rates :

Interesting talk. I would remind everyone that entropy only necessarily increases _in an isolated system_. Were I to ask for an example of an isolated system, any answer would necessarily be self defeating, because our interaction with the system necessarily makes it not isolated. Quantum physics, if anything, is at the very least teaching us how important the act of observation is. Classical interpretation of the second law can only ever be a heuristic.

Loyela Protocol explained in under 2-minutes. World’s first blockchain-based “Smart Loyalty” protocol.

Great stuff.

QC is pure bullshit. It was about to change the world back in 2000 too. Pure hype

Doesn't take much to win or lose, but what takes a lot is winning consistently. It should run like clock work.

I do not hold very optimistic views personally

I don't believe there's any chance of quantum computing becoming a reality any time soon. I haven't seen enough evidence. If there any palpable chance of a functional quantum computer being built in the next 20 years which was capable of running Shor's algorithm to crack public-key cryptography, we would certainly see a global concerted effort to shore up cryptography and prepare for the quantum age. I have seen zero evidence of this. All I see is propaganda from big-tech firms, in concert with the mainstream "science media" such as new scientist magazine about their achievements in terms of how many qubits their quantum processors have. What they don't tell you or show you is demonstrations of these "computers" performing any practical problems. This makes me really suspicious. If a functional stable quantum computer did exist (even with a small number of qubits), the least I'd expect to see is a demo of it running a quantum algorithm such as Shor's algorithm. I have yet to see such a demo. I'd be happy to be proven wrong, but until I see more concrete evidence, I'll feel safe in the knowledge that these "computers" are nothing more than expensive toys.

Death to Communism agree. Check my comment above. Basically the same opinion. Until I see evidence of a working DEMO of QC I too call bullshit. Even a toy 4-bit QC that can factor a 4-bit number would be a start. So far I've seen NOTHING!

That's right. I hate that quantum has become a buzzword for speculative and clickbait science.

This guy is Nobel Laureate level. In my view, he deserves Nobel prize. I like him for his ambition to do something good for the entire humanity than opening some private companies for selfish interest. Yes, do good for the mankind!

fuck mankind... Just do what you think is the most fun6

He is a great scientist but somehow seems naive when he talks about the glorious new world of total networking. He may have the best intentions but I’m sceptical: That story about the ugly duckling becoming a beautiful swan if it shares its valued data - it sounds intriguing but is mainly propaganda, especially when you think about Chinese mass surveillance and direct oppression of minorities and nonconformists based on micro observation and normalisation by means of their so-called social credit system. It may be loved by the middle class and a pet of the technocrats who claim to build a fairer monetary system and what not, and it is beloved and useful for all the “well behaved” and conformists. But it becomes more and more evident how it marginalises millions and turns them in pariahs, basically expelling them from participation in the economy. Watch out Googlers: the next technology that seems the most liberating and useful for society - with a few tweaks it may raise dystopia.

AI becomes magisterium of computer

I've been telling people working in Nuclear Medicine how special F18 and other Positron emitting isotopes are for our time. Now being a computer science student, I find it even more exciting. With new technologies in computing and evaluation of treatments with PET technology will be a game changer with Quantum and AI. We will be curing things we considered impossible sooner than we think.

+ robots

Then crypto needs an upgraded algorithm.


Coin?!? We are in the Age of Digital what now?? Heheheee GREAT VIDEO!


Would list two points quite incisive from other peoples' answers: 1. Quantum computing can crack any password instantly and the world would become insecure, how to solve this problem? 2. rich people are always the minority, would this make them even richer?

Do you believe in causality?

The plot of the American emperor.

R.I.P. Prof. Zhang


There are conspiracies about that the CIA assassinates him and fakes his death as a suicide because he shows the tendency of defecting to China. Anyways, it is great loss to the world. RIP Dr.Zhang.

it's so sad, and america is always doing something dirty

Kira JV , it is not even secured while the technology got stolen by other evil country

RIP... great scientist, great man!

very sad

Prof. Zhang committed suicide on Dec 1, 2018, reportedly. It is widely questioned whether U.S. Gov was involved in his death. Mark.

My colleague just told me there is a rumour he had met recently with the daughter of the founder of Huawei, who has just been arrested... Does anyone have more information and sources about this? RIP to a great scientist

May be murder

On 1 Dec supposedly they should both attend a banquet in Argentina, but Prof Zhang passed away that day. Not sure if they had met before but it's very likely so. Judging from Prof Zhang's pacing and volume here, I cannot really see any signs of long-time depression. He seemed really energetic and passionate about his studies.


RIP, professor Zhang.

I can't image a genius who studied in the area he loved for thirty years and passed away suddenly. He devoted his whole life in physics and is the real-life Sheldon. I don't believe that he gave up his study and chose suicide. Rip, hope you can study freely in heaven.

Prof. Zhang died on December 1, 2018. RIP

RIP ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


RIP Professor Zhang, it is unfortunate that you got caught in this insane trade war and become a sacrifice before G20 due to the 301 report by Trump administration. Your contribution in science will always be memorized.

干则成 murder may be

the news says he suffers from depression. I can hardly believe it...

Rest in peace you magnificent scientist. You had so much more to do in this world. Rest in peace.


RIP Prof. Zhang

murdered by the US government

USA has no morale ground for anything, if it even got conscience. Bush administration use detergent powder as fake mass destruction weapons evidence. Calling China hack internet but with no evidence, however got caught by Snowden for spying countries on people's email and phones. Saying China implant spy chips on western companies servers, yet Apple Amazon all say that is bullshit. Why Americans think they represent justice. Even Huawei do sell staffs to Iran, Why should a Chinese company abide American domestic law? Did UN published a sanctions on Iran? I don't see China kidnapped Boeing CEO or American firearms company CEO for violating China anti speration law. Used to be rich USA is behaving like a 300pounds bankrupted fat girl threatened her classmates not talking with a girl called Iran. who the fuck you think you are dumb trump?!

Reason of his murder: 37:30. Total decentralization of info.

Prof Zhang more than likely was murdered by CIA on December 1,2018 and Huawei CFO got kidnapped by American government on December 1 too. Coincident??

Zhang is more probable killed by your lovely Communist China, evidence and a baggage tied to a Spying Chinese cunt.

So funny that so many people think the U.S did it when China is all we are thinking in Asia for that guy knowing too much. His company announced his death publicly before any governement.

RIP, I don't believe it was suicide.

RIP Dr. Zhang, Hope the heaven shall have no politics got involved with science.

he is Chinese commie's spy. sorry, he was, since he is dead

Communist Party don't like evidence, got to get rid of it. Sorry he is dead.


wow, lots of Communist 50-cent here. It is widely believed that he was "suicided" by the Communist, he knew too much Huawei's dirty secrets and could potential be a witness to the eventual indictment of Sabrina Meng (Huawei CFO)

Respect. RIP

给共产党卖命的人 死得其所!


You are a sucker

+Lim S.K Who would not want him to talk to the US gov't about his investments in international IP companies that benefit the PRC?

any evidence?


...well done sir.

rest in peace.

+Lester Chester What a farce. Scientist like him is extremely valuable. No information obtained from any spying can be compared to what Dr. Zhang's research team can provide.

More likely people who didn't want him to talk about his investment in tech companies for IP that could assist Chinese gov't

CiscoKid so sad that a great scientist gets involved with politic.

Zhang was under FBI investigation for working with Chinese communist money. Too bad he had to go, dead evidence is no evidence.

Ben Yang I didn’t say which country, but as you know that every dollar bill printed “in god we trust” as the meaning of protecting the humanity, government of united stated has its self control by its religious and rule of law. This is the reason why dollar bill is accepted almost everywhere in the world, cause everybody trust its System.

pls define evil country carefully. evil country is the UNITED STATES OF A. In recent decades, America murdered and killed around the world with noble cause which carefully deceived by A medias.

+Omg Beast mode so that's the reason US playing dirty by kidnapping and murdering?

+CiscoKid Because he can move his research to China and really work with the communists, completely outside the control of the US.

Zhang was under the FBI investigation for working with the Chinese Communists. Why would the US killed their evidence tied to the Spying Communists?

Where is the source for this? Please link

This is very regrettable. But the speculation of the government conspiracy is ludicrous. Zhang's investment company is explicitly named in the Section 301 investigation report. There is no need for any covert conspiracy. Zhang's investment company has close ties with some disreputable companies, one of which is Huawei, with many illicit covert deals with Iran. The now arrested Huawei CFO was to attend a banquet together with Zhang in Buenos Aires.

Got to get rid of the evidence, big price to pay for working with the devil CCP.

There is no trade war but the request for the Chinese communist party government to honor its two-decade-long reneged commitments. The Section 301 investigation report is a legitimate legal process. Zhang's venture capital firm has close ties with some disreputable companies including Huawei which transacted illicitly and covertly with Iran.

干则成 shouldnt be the same day

well...... maybe he is indeed experiencing a hard time we just don't know :(

I totally agree with you theorists are so naive about the dark side of human beings. As he addressed at the beginning of this lecture, there always some evil and it can't be detected by a physical method, but it's there.

American kill him

He looks wonderful. I really don't think he has depression. I feel so sorry about the death of professor zhang.

Why this video appears in my recommended list,I can`t understand ONE word of what he said...


great scientist in 21C driven crazy by CIA big loss to the whole world RIP and curse the ugly of US

Murdered by China CCP agents.

prof. Zhang was working with Hwawei and invested $22 bil (founded by Chinese Gov.?) in many US company for the purpose of gathering scientific data. He is one of Thousand Project. FBI opened investigation on him.

True talent

Who can tell the truth ?

RIP. Prof. Zhang

Guarantee the US government “suicided” him. That’s what our country does best.

一路走好 张教授 ...

Dude is dead

a man konwing too much must be murdered in case of China rise----the guards of U.S interest

Rest in peace Prof Zhang. Nothing in this common world will matter to you anymore. Hoping there is no evil in the heaven.

Dr Michio Kaku sounds smarter than him. Wonder what would Michio Kaku think about his death

He looks naive

RIP Professor Zhang Shoucheng

He killed himself by being tied to the communist Chinese government.

RIP Prof Zhang. The world will not forget your contribution to science.


He murdered by China CCP agents. US need to investigate rather than kill him. A dead body is useless for US, but good for keeping secrets of China Huawei.

chinese pig get the hell out of the us website

+E USA has no morale ground for anything, if it even got conscience. Bush administration use detergent powder as fake mass destruction weapons evidence. Calling China hack internet but with no evidence, however got caught by Snowden for spying countries on people's email and phones. Saying China implant spy chips on western companies servers, yet Apple Amazon all say that is bullshit. Why Americans think they represent justice. Even Huawei do sell staffs to Iran, Why should a Chinese company abide American domestic law? Did UN published a sanctions on Iran? I don't see China kidnapped Boeing CEO or American firearms company CEO for violating China anti speration law. Used to be rich USA is behaving like a 300pounds bankrupted fat girl threatened her classmates not talking with a girl called Iran. who the fuck you think you are dumb trump?!

Is US involved? Of course, it does, it is investigating him and his company. Why would the US want him dead, they can just frame and lock him up for a long time if they want..... Will he turn to work for the US secret service instead with his family living happily in the US? The answer is obvious!! Will China want him dead??

He went bankruptcy due to investment in Bitcoins.

大哥您别洗地了 要是你在美国的话还是关系一下自家门口有没有FBI吧 不过张教授倒也是应该被共产党表彰一番呀 宁可自杀也决不向美国说出一点中共苟且的勾当 呵呵


Li Mingzhu 是呀是呀 梁家河的大书单背多了 脑残了 不过身体好了不少 现在抗二百斤麦子走十里山路轻轻松松 还能没事定于一尊什么的 奥 对了 共产党不是说2025还要崛起吗 怎么成撅起屁股啦


+Lim S.K 哈哈哈 比起习猪头200斤10里山路还是差远了 张教授一辈研究物理 死后终于可以研究研究伟大的马克思理论了 嗯, 顺便学习一下梁家河的大学问

+macy zhang我要是sucker那你是不是professional cock sucker?哈哈哈

+Lester Chester China wooing their scientists to return is nothing illegal or hidden, nor is Chinese investment in the US and elsewhere. His research is invaluable to China which the US would do anything in its power to stop.

+Lester Chester Whether he wanted leave or not does not imply guilt. You are the one accusing him of treason and using that to justify his murder.

+Zsari Maxim You were the one who was implying Dr. Zhang wanted to move to China, which was the reason for US's "killing." I never believed Dr. Zhang wanted to leave for China. "Zhang attributes his academic achievements to Stanford, which he said is his source of 'happiness.' "Every morning coming to work, I still can't believe there is such a great job in the world like this. We have fabulous weather in California, beautiful environment. I teach the most brilliant minds in the world, and have the ultimate freedom to carry out my research," said Zhang, "life couldn't be better."

+Zsari Maxim Why would the US gov't want to kill Dr. Zhang? As mentioned, he would be a key witness in investigating Chinese gov't nation state actions against the US. He needed to be protected.

+Zsari Maxim Are you confusing Dr. Zhang as a Chinese citizen? He was a US citizen, all of his research grants prior to Chinese government involvement was from the US. The US government has use rights to US government sponsored research (The right to use, but not the right to own the profit the inventor makes on selling products based on the IP). And the fact that Chinese government sponsorship of sensitive technology as Dr. Zhang's would be subject to US government approval. Do you understand US laws differently? As an example, if you have obtained US grants to start the development of a new type of DNA splitting process, you cannot just sell that or give that to the Chinese government.

+Lester Chester The more you go the more you are implicating the US government for murder. Trying to justify that through accusation of treason without providing evidence in court to try him. If he was flight risk, then he won't be in Argentina to meet Meng, nor would he return to the US on his own accord.

+Zsari Maxim In case you don't know, assisting a foreign nation against one's nation is treason.

+Lester Chester Sounded like all more the reasons to kill him? China doesn't need him specifically to extract IP, as his own research is just as valuable if not more.

+Zsari Maxim Have you ever heard of Committee on Foreign Investment in the US (I know, it's severely underfunded)? Foreign government's investing in the US companies in key areas needs to be approved. Again Dr. Zhang could choose to live anywhere (and he chose to live in the US), but not even him could legally assist the Chinese government extract IP from the US labor force en mass. Dr. Zhang was drafted by the Chinese gov't to participate in its Thousand Talents Plan, which targets experts worldwide, for IPs in domains Made In China 2025 has identified.

+Lester Chester Venture capital doesn't need to be moved at all as he still can control these ventures from anywhere in the world outside of the US jurisdiction. Or US is going to resorting to kidnapping again?

+Zsari Maxim Yes, he himself could move, but he couldn't move the more than 100+ start ups funded. Not sure you understand the scope of Capital Venture's undertaking or how much money is involved here. This is acts of a nation state, not of an individual. The IP is not just in Dr. Zhang's expertise, it covers AI, Bio, robotics and a large number of domains.

+Lester Chester What treason. He didnt need to steal any IP for China, as he could leave the US and move his research to China. That's the most likely the cause of his death. US doesn't own their citizen as some sort of property.

+Zsari Maxim Sir, as a US citizen Dr. Zhang was likely facing treason charge due to his active assistance in obtaining IP for the Chinese government. The funding for Dr. Zhang's Capital Venture company is entirely sponsored by the Chinese Central gov't. Treason penalty can be as high as death sentence, although no one had actually experienced death sentence since 1862. Dr. Zhang would no longer be able to contribute to the Chinese gov't and would likely cooperate with the US in investigating Chinese activities and divulging Chinese counterparts, their organization and other information. Again, this is speculation but plausible.

+Lester Chester What's the good of the nation? Dr. Zhang is extremely valuable to China. There is not even an ounce of logic in China wanting him dead, as he presents one the great opportunity for China to leap frog the US. And yes, it's very suspicious the so call depression only come out after his death. The possibility of foul play is obvious there, with the US motive far outstrip that of China's.

+Zsari Maxim Firstly, Please watch your language. Everyone can express his opinion but not using fowl language. Yes, Dr. Zhang is extremely talented and is a US citizen. This is speculation and one plausible explanation. For a dictatorship nation, would it be more important that the "good of the nation" is preserved or a life of an ex-citizen? ("Undesirable" Chinese as deemed by the Chinese gov't have a track history of "being disappeared." Officials, especially, are prone to commit suicide due to "depression." which seems to surface only after the suicide.

He was not a great man. He was evil with unlimited greed and of course genius.

+Billy Hamlen WTH are you talking about?? I never ask that to anyone under this thread, you must be delusional

+Hu Zheng You asked whether the US gov is involved in his suicide and I just gave you the answer. Isn't that obvious? Is US involved? Of course, it does, it is investigating him and his company. Why would the US want him dead, they can just frame and lock him up for a long time if they want..... Will he turn to work for the US secret service instead with his family living happily in the US? The answer is obvious!! Will China want him dead??

+Billy Hamlen Of course I did, why do you ask me this question? I just admire him for knowing so much as a foreigner( if he is), I know those things too, but I admire his eloquence.

He knows too much of the Chinese espionage network and operation....Didnt you notice the number of Chinese official and billionaires dying off manic depression and jumping off cliff and buildings lately?

+nightrider Man you are so eloquent and knowledgeable about China-US relation, are you a Chinese-American or just American?

+E maybe you killed him

+Yan Hu: Your allegation is baffling. Are you asserting you know better the Canadian law than the Canadian Minister of Justice or the Canadian Federal judge who sign the arrest warrant and that they openly violate the Canadian law? Moreover, you are alleging you have more evidence in hand to show that the US charges are "trumped up" than the FBI, US Southern District Attorney and the Canadian Justice Ministry combined? If so, I suggest you apply to head the defense team of Meng the CFO, or even better, sue the Canadian government and along with the US government at the Canadian Supreme Court. More damningly, and this may be news to you, Meng the CFO, is a Canadian citizen with large private wealth, including real estate, holdings, in Canada. Her husband and children live in Canada as well. What is wrong with the Canadian authority arresting its own citizen on credible charges with a warrant signed by Canadian Federal judge? China ostensibly outlaws double citizenship. Are you not angry at the Chinese government's double standards applied its ordinary citizens and its princelings and those with close ties to the government? China will arrest people on trumped charges? Are you kidding that that is even news? China does not even need charges to jail people. Just ask those many businessmen and lawyers who dare to advocate for the law. Just ask the hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs in the reeducation internment camps in Xinjiang. As for China asking a friendly country to do its bidding, which one do you have in mind? Countries like Venezuela, North Korea? Yeah, right. Even if that happens, it would give more ammunitions to Trump to pressure the Chinese communist party government. That is the last thing Xi Jinping wants. There was even rumor that Xi knew in advance the US action to Meng. She may well be sacrificed for the good of the party. Hey, any good comrade worthy of her name should prepare to do that. As for the well worn clique saying to "No" to the US, no fitter person than Xi Jinping himself has set the perfect example of that by bowing to the US pressure and demand and agreed to roll back the tariffs from China and take swift action in less than 90 days. As for the US stock market, it is just normal market volatility. No self-respecting person with any experience playing the market would attribute these moves to a single reason such as the trade strife. On the other hand, you should look at the Chinese stock market and see how large the price drop has been over the whole year. All signs, including employment and financial data, indicate the Chinese economy is entering into a structural economic crisis. Otherwise Xi would not have surrendered so soon. If you are so confident, why don't you be specific as to define how soon is your "soon"? By what date would you predict she would be released, not on house arrest, but released to leave for China?

China CCP killed him for keeping Huawei secrets.

+nightrider Canada should not have arrested her because she did not break any Canadian law. The US applied the domestic law on a foreign soil. This sets a precedent for other countries. Next, China could ask a friendly country to arrest a high profile US company's CFO or CEO on a trumped up charge such as selling weapons to Taiwan because it is against the Chinese domestic law to do so. No country, especially the second largest economy, is obligated to follow the US's sanctions on Iran. A lot of US's allies such as Japan and South Korean have to do so because they have no other choices. But China is the only country that can say "No" to the US. Just Look at the trade war and how much the US stock market has dropped in the past 30 days . I predict that the CFO will be released soon.

+nightrider you better behave before I start kicking your ass

+LOVE SIMPLETON: And God only reveals the truth to you, an unthinking simpleton? Again, do you understand any phrase in this video on physics and mathematics? You may be a simpleton afflicted with recurring messianic hallucination. More weeds or meth, not math, would help.

+nightrider because the truth is plain and simple to realise, you over think too much

+LOVE SIMPLETON: How do you even deduce the impossibility of his suicide? How do you even deduce these three are the only possibilities? Well, your name explains it all: a simpleton. Why are you even here, watching a video on physics and mathematics? Would you not feel out of your depth?

+nightrider its impossible he would kill himself, its impossible China would kill him, so it has to be the US. Also the US has always done this sort of things, its hardly news any more

+Zsari Maxim: You have no idea what his research is about, do you? His work is completely theoretical, a long way from any realizable application and is worthwhile only when published publicly. US is the most fertile ground for his kind of theoretical research and for all other kind of practical technological endeavor. If moving to China had been a viable choice, he would have done so long ago. His very currency in China is his scientific reputation (yes, more reputation than the substance) accumulated in the US. The very raison d'etre of his venture capital firm, which funnels money from the Chinese communist government, is to invest in the tech companies in the Silicon Valley, rather than those in the communist China. Only idiots would think FBI would have killed an investigative target with renown rather than let him lead them to the bigger fish.

+人情味儿没有: You have nothing but feces coming out of your mouth, dickhead. Lol

+Cheng Zhao:

+DW D: "USA arrested Huawei CFO is only because ..." How are you so certain? How do you back up an allegation in such certain terms? Huawei CFO will soon be in court and defending the charges from the office of the US Southern District Attorney. If you have such strong evidence of her and Huawei's innocence, I suggest you apply to be the head of the defense team of her and Huawei. Motivation of an action can not be observed only speculated. But in terms of action which can be observed, Huawei has skirted the sanction on Iran and violated the law. The violation of the law is the very definition of "illicit". What do you mean by "there is no illicit"? Huawei has also committed a large number of intellectual property thefts. Those are but some of the disreputes Huawei has on its account. She is arrested to answer to those charges. You should welcome this opportunity in court for Huawei to defend its reputation, shouldn't you? What is the relevance of the crown prince of Saudi Arabia to Huawei's violation of the law? As for the question of disrepute of the crown prince of Saudi Arabia, it is wholly true that he is in disrepute. But what is this disrepute have to do with Huawei's illicit act? Are you saying Huawei is aiding and abetting the crown prince in the murder?

+nightrider lol. Huawei is a disreputable company? Man, you are so full of shit. Halliburton would be called disreputable b4 Huawei is.

+jsssm He just has been killed by the United States of White Fucking Faggots because he was helping Huawei developing new chips.

hahahaha, this comment would only come from (1) a China shill or (2) a crypto nut shill.

+nightrider Huawei is not disreputable, why USA arrested Huawei CFO is only because Huawei is a strong competitor in the 5G with USA company whose shareholder is held by many USA governors. The princess of Saudi Arabia killed a journalist, USA is still a friend of Saudi Arabia. Be aware of it, there is no disreputable or illicit or Communists, in the politician's eyes, there is only profit and interests.

They signed a technology transfer agreement.

+Ciel Fu "judging from pacing and volume" you detect no signs of depression. Interesting... This may shock people but depression is not the only cause of suicide, nor even the greatest cause. The fact is, we really don't know because we don't know the subjective experience of the deceased prior to the act. Most depressed people do not in fact commit suicide. They may ruminate & idealize the act, but not follow through. The correlation between suicide and depression is real, but greatly overstated. There are other factors behind the act independent of depression.

+Billy Hamlen Latest conspiracy theory on the street says that he invested too much in altcoin ICO and lost too much after a bug of ECR20 was exploited.

Didnt you notice the number of Chinese official and billionaires dying off manic depression and jumping off cliff and buildings lately?

Even sir Isaac Newton underestimated the madness of mankind in financial markets.

For one second I thought you were referring to my idol Sheldon Wolin...但原來是沒有營養的東西。


+天人合一 你真的是够了

Claudia Cai Because you are not a genius, so you never imagine what he thinks.

+张亚楠: I agree. These kind of harmful acts are also implicitly encouraged by decades of willful tolerance and negligence by the US. What would people do when they see thieves and robbers go unpunished but rather prosper? Would they not be tempted to join them?

这我倒是同意 科学上贡献没啥说的 不过一码事是一码事 私通中共的账还是得算,难以想象这么聪明的人在政治上这么幼稚,利用投资公司干出危害美国国家安全的事情。归根结底,如果中共不是这样一个邪恶的独裁政权,他也决不会到这一步

He just has been killed by the United States of White Fucking Faggots because he was helping Huawei developing new chips.

+E Murdered by fbi

Don't be, he just has been killed by the United States of White Fucking Faggots because he was helping Huawei developing new chips.

He is dead


RIP. Don't believe it's a suicide. But ppl just go easy on the murder theory, about who did what, US, China... No one never knows what really happened to this man. Only thing we know, A centralized world consists of too many demons. Cost to dump all the entropy is still too much high.

Rest in peace

Rip prof. No mainstream media is reporting this. All covered by the news of the capture of Huawei's CFO which happens on the same day.

Rest In Peace

He died about the same day Huawei's CFO was arrested in Canada. The U.S. wants to dominate in 5G technology but unable to compete with Huawei. So he was murdered and the arrest of CFO is highly questionable. I am not surprised if Canadian will find her commiting suicide.

A Chinese spy


You wish you can have 1% of his intelligence.

True sadness .Rest in Peace.

The more capable you are, the more dangerous for you to cooperate with CCP! Professor Zhang is a typical case! cherish life, keep away from CCP,

Peace in Heaven! Lesson: never colluding with Communist evil.

no way! just can't believe it

A brilliant scientist was sacrificed by politics. What a shame is for all human beings.

He sure looks depressed... Rest in peace man. Hope it's a better world on the other side.

Wish Professor Shou-Cheng Zhang can rest in peace. In sorrow, Jian-Hao Zhang, in Tsinghua University.

What a great talk and a great scientist! Still cannot believe Prof. Zhang committed suicide just few months after giving this talk. He was just 55. 张老师安息!RIP.


張去了美國幾十年, 享盡美國提供的空間自由優厚薪水幸福家庭,但有好人不做,卻去做反人類共鏟走狗! 最後被中共滅口,死有餘辜! 你們這些來自大陸的人應引以為戒!



stealing tech secret for communist china! killed by chinese spy when exposed.


R.I.P professor

I can't believe…


pubokiazm while this one jumps off a building

and your statement sounds much smarter than kaku's! get the drift? anyway, all that guy says is this annoying line "we physicist, when we physicist, while we physicist..." you get the idea. wtf. bulged up ego of being "physicist". one super annoying physicist that one is.

Stupid shit

No murdered by the ccp( Chinese community party)

How are You 五毛

+CiscoKid Then what's the depression all about? Also, would you kill your long term investment for a short term loss? It's quite likely that your lovely imperialist US doesn't want to have another Hsue-Shen Tsien or Chen-Ning Yang

f*ckoff killer!

Lester Chester Wow, how did you know this much? I am very impressed.

+Zsari Maxim Dr. Zhang's DHVC (previously Danhua Capital) invested in one hundred and thirteen US start ups, most which are NOT in Dr. Zhang's specialty and cover domains corresponding to China 2025. DHVC is entirely funded with Chinese money.

+Zsari Maxim Not so easy if you conduct espionage against a nation while you're a citizen of a nation.

+Lester Chester What does having US citzenship has anything to do with the case? You can get citzenship and you can renounce them. Top scientists can get citizenship anywhere in the world.

+Zsari Maxim Sir, Would it be possible for you to acknowledge Dr. Zhang was a US citizen? He had formally renounced his Chinese citizenship, which was not a passive decision. China's recruiting an American to obtain critical IPs is called espionage, by any nation's definition. Basically, China declared China 2025 encompassing critical technology domains, and then, quite amusingly, "outsourced" that huge amount of R&D effort to the US labor force through espionage operations.

It couldn't be the work of U.S. Gov. It was Chinese Gov who wanted to avoid being exposed further. Keeping him in the US is a better option for further investigation.

+nightrider The US stock market, it is just normal market volatility? You know nothing about the market. The DOW dropped a total of 1500 points in the last week excatly because the trade war and this issue. First 800 points on Dec 4 when the investors realized that Xi promised Trump nothing concrete. And on Dec 6 and Dec 7 It dropped again round 700 points due to the arrest of the CFO because the investors were worried about the repercussions of such a nasty move by the US. Here are some links for you to read and weep. As I said, China can easily retaliate by doing something similar. In 2014, Kenya and Malaysia extradited hundreds of Taiwan con artists to China to face punishment. Giving Trump more fuel? Naive, All signs show that he is caving in. Tell me what concessions China has promised so far? Buy more soy beans like how it was pre trade war? Lower the car tariffs? If there were anything meaningful the market would not have dropped so much last week.

+nightrider he must use HuaWei phone which was bought by CCP for him.

US government was indirectly involved, he committed suicide right after Huawei CFO was arrested. He is closely linked to Huawei in some business and research.

+t t Huawei sell Iran technologies that were from USA. That's why USA holds Huawei accountable. everybody on earth knows that chinese government put their very own people under surveillance, phone, web access, the words they said, etc. Besides North Korea, China may be the only country that does it on own people. That's very evil.

He gave up his study and turned his attention on money, and chose to follow evil communist party's cause, focus on stealing high tech from USA for China. FBI is closing in his activities, plus pressure from ccp, that was the only way he could possibly choose.

He must be involved in Huawei Scandal, he committed suicide right after Huawei CFO was arrested.

Feel sorry for him. He might have achieved a lot in science , but he was not wise enough to choose to work for the evil China communists. What he did actually do no good to people who suffers in communist China. Stick warning to those who still collude with CCP!

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