Suzdal, Golden Ring of Russia (4K HDR)
Suzdal is one of the oldest cities on the Russian land. The city is spread out in the bend of the Kamenka River on a fertile flat land. The first mention of Suzdal dates back to 1024.
During its long history, Suzdal was the capital of various principalities, and the largest religious center, and a small provincial town, remote from all major roads. This is how he has come down to our days. The borders of Suzdal have not changed for over 200 years. Today, this preserved corner of antiquity is not only called an open-air museum, but is also included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The construction of Suzdal began with the Kremlin, and to this day, the earthen ramparts used to defend the ancient city have been preserved.
At the beginning of the 11th century, the city of Suzdal was part of the Kiev state, and a few years later it became the fiefdom of Vladimir Monomakh, thanks to whom the city was actively developing and strengthening and soon became the capital of the Rostov-Suzdal principality. During his lifetime, Vladimir Monomakh transferred the Suzdal land to his son Yuri Dolgoruky, who did a lot for the development of the city. During the reign of Yuri Dolgoruky, churches and monasteries were built, the city was strengthened, and its political influence was growing. In the future, the role of Suzdal as the center of the principality weakens, and Suzdal is included in the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, the capital of which is the city of Vladimir. In 1238, the Mongol-Tatars attacked the city, set it on fire and plundered it, and took most of the inhabitants into captivity. The history of the city in the period after the Mongol-Tatar invasion is characterized by the internecine struggle of the Tver, Suzdal and Moscow princes for power.
Throughout its history, Suzdal has been attacked and plundered more than once, but was subsequently rebuilt. At the behest of Peter I, Suzdal became a district town in the Moscow province. During the reign of Catherine II, active stone construction took place in Suzdal, and mainly civil buildings.
In 1922, the Suzdal History and Art Museum was founded in Suzdal. The Suzdal Kremlin is the oldest part of the city. The basis of the architectural ensemble of the Suzdal Kremlin is the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Theotokos, the Bishops Palace and St. Nicholas Church.
The Bishops Palace are a complex of stone buildings, the oldest of which is the corner southeastern part - the Episcopal Palace of the late 15th century. On a wide staircase through the vestibule, visitors got to the front room of the second floor - the Cross Chamber. In this hall, the royal decrees and decisions of the archbishop were read, people who came for a blessing were received. On the basis of preserved written descriptions, the interior of the 18th century is completely reproduced in the exposition of the Cross Chamber. In the center of the hall there is a bishop's armchair upholstered in red velvet, a table and chairs from the 18th century, on the table are inkpots, pens, a sandbox, a box for printing, books. The interior is complemented by a tiled stove and icons.
The halls of the chambers also house an exposition dedicated to the history of Suzdal. The building of the Annunciation Church houses a magnificent collection of icons of the 15th-17th centuries, collected from different churches of the Vladimir lands. In the western part of the Kremlin there is a wooden St. Nicholas Church, built in 1766. The church is an example of the most ancient "cage" temples.
At the heart of its architecture is a chopped cage, similar to a Russian hut. - Suzdal Kremlin: Cathedral of the Nativity of the Theotokos, the Episcopal Palace - The Cathedral of the Nativity of the Theotokos is the oldest stone building in Suzdal. The construction of the first plinth cathedral dates back to the beginning of the 12th century, but already in 1148 the cathedral was dismantled, after which it was rebuilt from rubble stone. The cathedral was rebuilt several times, and in the 17th century it acquired its present appearance. Then, in the 17th century, the cathedral was painted from the inside. In 1233 the cathedral was decorated with fresco painting by the Rostov and Suzdal masters of Bishop Kirill.
Fragments of this painting were discovered in 1938. Tsar-lantern made by Kholmogory craftsmen in the 17th century. Portable crosses, 17th century. The western and southern gates of the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Theotokos in Suzdal are an outstanding monument of Russian applied art of the first third of the 13th century.
The gates consist of a wooden base upholstered with copper sheets and decorated with images made using the technique of “fire gilding”. The bell tower of the cathedral was built in 1635. At the end of the 17th century, a bell-ringing clock was installed on the bell tower, which has been corrected and is currently functioning. The Museum of Wooden Architecture is located on the banks of the Kamenka River, not far from the Suzdal Kremlin. About 20 of the best examples of wooden architecture of the 18th – 19th centuries, made without a single nail, were brought to Suzdal from all over the Vladimir region in the 60s – 70s of the 20th century.
There are two wooden churches on the territory of the museum. The Church of the Transfiguration (1756) is a striking example of a multi-tiered church. The bulbous heads on the drums and the barrel covers are covered with an ornate aspen ploughshare.
A hut with outbuildings is located nearby. The second is the Church of the Resurrection (1776) - a tiered church of the "cage" type, built by a "ship", i.e. all its parts - the altar, the main volume, the bell tower, the west porch - are stretched along one axis. The interior of a rural church of the 18th-19th centuries with a three-tiered iconostasis has been recreated in the church. The Museum of Wooden Architecture gives an idea not only about the rural architecture of the Vladimir region, but also about the life of Russian peasants of past centuries.
You can see, for example, a one-story house of the 19th century of a middle peasant. Through the covered courtyard, you can go to an unheated crate, which served both as a storage room for storing property and some food supplies, and as an additional living space in the summer. In the smaller, warm half of the house, there is a typical setting: a red corner with icons, a Russian stove with a stove bench, a dining table and benches. The house of a prosperous peasant (XIX century) - two-storey, on a brick foundation. The lower floor of the house served as a storeroom, or a light room, in which the manufactory was located.
The upper floor was occupied by residential rooms, where, in addition to the traditional setting of a village hut, various objects of urban culture (a sewing machine, a mirror) are presented, which speak of the welfare of the owners. A rare exhibit is a wheeled ("tread") well (mid-19th century). To raise the water inside the wheel, equipped with steps, a person entered and, stepping like a ladder, untwisted it. Tent-roof windmills of the late 18th century moved to Suzdal have become a real decoration of the Museum of Wooden Architecture. The monastery was founded in 1352 by the Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod prince Boris Konstantinovich.
The first abbot of the monastery was the Monk Euthymius, who belonged to the circle of spiritual interlocutors of Sergius of Radonezh. After the canonization of Euthymius in 1549, the monastery became known as the Saint Euthymius. The patronage of the Suzdal and Moscow princes provided the monastery with rich land holdings and many privileges. By the end of the 17th century, the monastery became one of the richest in Russia. The existing stone ensemble of the monastery was formed in the XVI-XVII centuries. The Monastery of Saint Euthymius is surrounded by walls 1200 m long, erected in the 17th century.
Walls with 12 towers, embrasures and loopholes were built to protect the monastery from external attacks. -The Monastery of Saint Euthymius: the Transfiguration Cathedral and Belfry- From the Fortification tower , the road leads to the Annunciation Church, built in the 17th century. The main volume of the temple ends with a small chapter, but earlier the completion was different - two-hipped.
The facades of the church have a rather rich decorative treatment. Another notable building in the center of the Monastery of Saint Euthymius is the two-story Archimandrite building, erected between 1628 and 1660. The building houses an exposition of icons and books of the 17th-19th centuries of a church and secular nature. The Transfiguration Cathedral, built in the middle of the 16th century, is the main building of the monastery ensemble. In the 16th century, the temple was decorated with external painting, and at the end of the 17th century, the famous Kostroma masters Gury Nikitin and Sila Savin decorated the inner walls of the cathedral with colored paintings, reflecting portraits of Russian tsars in them.
Near the Transfiguration Cathedral there is a rare monument of Russian architecture - a belfry of the 16th century. At first it was a simple church of St. John the Baptist, which adjoined the main building of the cathedral in the form of an outbuilding. In the 16th century, the first bell column was added to the church. A hundred years later, two more appeared, forming a three-span arch. The clock, as in antiquity, has one hour hand, and instead of numbers - the letters of the Cyrillic alphabet.
Outside, at the walls of the cathedral altar, in April 1642, the national hero of the Russian people, Dmitry Pozharsky, was buried in the ancestral tomb. There is a tombstone at the burial site, next to it is a memorial cross. In 1858-1885, on the site of Pozharsky's grave, a carved marble mausoleum with mosaic icons and gratitude inscriptions was built according to the project of the professor of the Academy of Arts Alexei Gornostaev. To the right of the The Annunciation Church is the pharmaceutical garden, where a large number of medicinal plants are presented.
Since ancient times, the monasteries have been engaged in the cultivation and collection of medicinal plants. This was one of the types of monastic obedience. And under Ivan the Terrible, the Pharmaceutical Chamber was opened, which was transformed in the 16th century into the Pharmaceutical Order. This is how a pharmaceutical garden appeared in the Monastery of Saint Euthymius.
The monastery was founded on the right bank of the Kamenka River in 1364 by the Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod prince Andrei Konstantinovich. The rise of the monastery began in the 16th century. In the 1510s, intensive stone construction began there with funds invested by the Grand Duke Vasily III. The buildings of this period form the core of the present architectural ensemble of the monastery. In the center of the monastery territory there is a three-domed Intercession Cathedral (1510-1518), surrounded on three sides by a gallery. In the 18th century, it was connected by a passage with a free-standing bell tower (16th-17th centuries).
On three sides, the cathedral is surrounded by a two-tiered gallery. Stairs with porches lead to the upper tier, the roof of which is supported by an arcade. In the basement there was a burial vault intended for the burial of the noble nuns of the monastery. In the building of the Conception Church, built in 1551, there were: in the center - a one-pillar two-height refectory chamber, from the east - a small Conception Church, from the west - the cellar chamber.