Tourism | Wikipedia audio article
Tourism. Has traveled for pleasure or business, also the theory and practice of touring the business of attracting, accommodating. And entertaining, tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism. May be international. Or within the travelers country, the, World Tourism Organization. Defines tourism. More generally, in terms which go beyond. The common perception, of tourism, as being limited to holiday, activity, only as. People. Traveling. To and staying in places outside their usual environment, for. Not more than one consecutive. Year for leisure and not less than 24, hours business. And other purposes. Tourism. Can be domestic, or international an, international. Tourism has both incoming, and outgoing implications. On a country's, balance of payments, today. Tourism, is a major source, of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases being of vital importance, tourism suffered. As a result of a strong economic slowdown. Of the late 2000s, recession between. The second half of 2008. And the end of 2009. And the outbreak of the h1n1, influenza. Virus, but slowly recovered. International. Tourism receipts the, travel item in the balance of payments, grew to one point zero three trillion dollars, 740. Billion euros, in 2011, corresponding. To an increase in real terms of 3.8, percent from 2010. International. Tourist, arrivals surpassed, the milestone, of 1 billion tourists, globally, for the first time in 2012, emerging. Markets such as China Russia, and Brazil had, significantly. Increased, their spending over the previous, decade the. ITB Berlin, is the world's leading tourism, trade fair, global. Tourism accounts for CA, 8%, of global greenhouse gas emissions. Topic. Etymology. The, word tourist was used in 1772. And tourism, in 1811 it is. Formed from the word tour which is derived from Old English turian from Old French toerner, from Latin torn air to turn on a lathe which is itself from ancient Greek tore nose tore no slave. Topic. Significance. Of tourism. Tourism. Has become an important, even vital, source of income for many regions, and even entire countries, the. Manila declaration. On world tourism of 1980, recognized, its importance, as an activity. Essential. To the life of Nations because, of its direct effects, on the social, cultural, educational. And economic sectors. Of national, societies. And on their international. Relations. Tourism. Brings large, amounts of income into a local economy, in the form of payment for goods and services needed, by tourists. Accounting, as of 2011 for, 30 percent of the world's trade and services, and for 6 percent of overall exports. Of goods and services it. Also generates, opportunities. For employment in the service sector of the economy associated. With tourism the hospitality, industries, which benefit, from tourism include, transportation. Services, such as Airlines, cruise ships trains, and taxicabs, hospitality. Services, such as accommodations. Including, hotels, and resorts and, entertainment, venues such as amusement, parks restaurants casinos, shopping. Malls music, venues and theaters this. Is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the. Flipside tourism, can degrade people and sour relationships. Between host, and guest. Topic. Definitions. In, 1936. The League of Nations defined. A foreign tourist as someone. Traveling, abroad for, at least 24, hours, its. Successor. The United Nations amended, this definition, in 1945. By including a maximum, stay of six months in 1941. Hunziker, and kraft defined, tourism, as the, sum of the phenomena, and relationships. Arising, from the travel, and stay of non-residents. Insofar, as they do not lead to permanent residents. And are not connected, with any earning, activity, in. 1976. The tourism, Society of England's definition, was tourism. As the temporary short term movement of people, to destinations. Outside the places, where they normally live and work and their activities, during the stay at each destination.
It. Includes, movements, for all purposes in. 1981. The International, Association of, scientific, experts, in tourism defined, tourism, in terms of particular, activities, chosen, and undertaken, outside the home in 1994. The United Nations, identified, three forms of tourism in its recommendations. On tourism statistics. Domestic. Tourism involving. Residents of the given country traveling only within this country. Inbound. Tourism involving. Non-residents. Traveling in the given country. Outbound. Tourism involving. Residents traveling, in another country, the terms tourism, and travel are sometimes, used interchangeably in, this. Context, Travel has a similar, definition to, tourism but implies a more purposeful, journey the. Terms tourism, and tourist are sometimes, used pejoratively to, imply a shallow interest, in the cultures or locations, visited, by. Contrast, traveler, is often used as a sign of distinction, the. Sociology. Of tourism, has studied the cultural values underpinning, these distinctions, and their implications, for class relations. Topic. Tourism. /, you and WTO. One, natural, based, tourism. 1.1. Ecotourism. 1.2. Marine ecotourism. 1.3. Geotourism. 1.4. Agro tourism. 1.5. Astrological. Tourism, two. Cultural. Based tourism. 2.1. Cultural, and traditional tourism. 2.2. Historical, tourism. 2.3. Rural tourism. 3. Special. Interest tourism. 3.1. Health tourism. 3.2. Meditation. Tourism. 3.3. Ethnic, tourism. 3.4. Sports tourism. 3.5. Adventure, travel. 3.6. Home farm stay. 3.7. Long-stay. 3.8. Incentive, travel. 3.9. Mice meeting, incentive, conference, exhibition. 310. Mixed tourism. Topic. World Tourism statistics. And rankings. You. Topic. Total, volume, of cross-border, tourist, travel. International. Tourist arrivals reached. 1.03. 5 billion in 2012, up from over 996. Million, in 2011, and 952. Million in 2010, in, 2011. And 2012, international. Travel demand continued, to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s. Recession where tourism suffered, a strong slowdown, from the second half of 2008. Through the end of 2009. After. A five percent, increase in the first half of 2008. Growth in international tourist. Arrivals moved, into negative territory in, the second half of 2008. And ended up only 2% for the year compared to a 7%, increase in 2007. The. Negative, trend intensified. During 2009. Exacerbated. In some countries, due to the outbreak of the h1n1 influenza. Virus. Resulting, in a worldwide decline, of 4.2, percent in, 2009, to 880. Million international. Tourists, arrivals, and a 5.7. Percent decline in international, tourism receipts. Topic. World's, top tourism, destinations. The, World Tourism Organization. Reports, the following 10 destinations as, the most visited, in terms of the number of international, travelers, in 2017. Topic. International. Tourism receipts. International.
Tourism Receipts grew, to. 1260. Billion dollars in 2015. Corresponding. To an increase in real terms of 4.4, percent from 2014 the, World. Tourism Organization reports. The following entities, as the top 10 tourism, earners for the Year 2015. Topic. International. Tourism expenditure. The, World Tourism Organization. Reports, the following countries, as the ten biggest spenders, on international. Tourism for the Year 2015. Topic. MasterCard. Global, destination. Cities index. Based, upon air traffic the MasterCard, global, destination. Cities index rates the following, as the world's 10 most popular. Cities for international, tourism. MasterCard. Rates the following, cities as the world's 10 biggest earners from international. Tourism in 2015. Topic. Euromonitor. International top. City destinations. Ranking. Euromonitor. International rated. These the world city's most visited by international. Tourists, in January, 2015. Topic. World Travel and Tourism Council. Topic. History. You. Topic. Antiquity. Travel. Outside a person's, local, area for leisure was largely confined to wealthy classes who at times traveled. To distant parts of the world to see great buildings, and works of art learn new languages experience. New cultures and, to taste different cuisines as early. As shoga however Kings praised themselves, for protecting, roads and building waste stations for travelers. Traveling. For pleasure can, be seen in Egypt as early on as 1500. BC, during. The Roman Republic spas. And coastal resorts, such as by eye were popular, among the rich pass. Anya's wrote his description, of Greece in the second century AD in, ancient. China Nobles sometimes, made a point of visiting Mount Tai and on occasion, all five sacred, mountains. Topic. Middle, Ages. By, the Middle Ages Christianity. And Buddhism had, traditions, of pilgrimage. Chaucer's. Canterbury, Tales in, whoo chug ins Journey to the West remained, classics, of English and Chinese literature. The. 10th to 13th century. Song Dynasty, also saw secular, travel writers such as sushi 11th, century, invention, da 12th century, become popular, in China under. The Ming Shu shocky continued, the practice in medieval. Italy, Francesco, Petrarch also wrote an allegorical, account, of his 1336. Ascent of Mount Venn to that praised the act of traveling and criticized frigid, and curiosity, Oz cold, lack of curiosity. The. Bergen vien poet Machaut tale event later composed, his own horrified, recollections. Of a 1430, trip through the Jura mountains. Topic. Grand, Tour. Modern. Tourism can be traced to what was known as the Grand Tour which was a traditional trip, around Europe especially Germany. And Italy undertaken. By mainly upper-class, European, young men of means mainly, from western, and northern European, countries in.
1624. Young prince of poland Ladislaus Sigismund, Vasa the eldest son and heir of Sigismund, the third embarked, for a journey across Europe as was in custom among Polish nobility, he. Traveled, through territories, of today's Germany, Belgium Netherlands. Where he admired the siege of Breda by Spanish forces France, Switzerland, to Italy Austria, and the Czech Republic, it. Was an educational. Journey and one of the outcomes was, introduction, of Italian, opera in the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth, the, custom flourished from about 1660. Until the advent of large-scale rail, transit in the 1840s. And generally, followed a standard, itinerary, it was, an educational. Opportunity and, rite of passage though. Primarily associated with, the British nobility and wealthy landed, gentry similar. Trips were made by wealthy young men of Protestant. Northern European, nations on the continent, and from the second half of the 18th century some, South American u.s., and other overseas youth, joined in the. Tradition, was extended, to include more, of the middle class, after, rail and steamship, travel, made the journey easier and, Thomas Cook made the Kochs tour a byword. The. Grand Tour became, a real status symbol for upper-class students, in the 18th and 19th centuries. In this. Period Johann, Joachim Winckelmann, theories. About the supremacy, of classic, culture became, very popular, and appreciated. In the European academic, world, artists. Writers and travelers such as Goethe affirmed, the supremacy, of classic, art of which Italy France and Greece provide, excellent, examples, for. These reasons the Grand Tours main destinations. Were to those centers where upper-class, students, could find rare examples, of classic, art and history the New. York Times recently described. The Grand Tour in this way. 300. Years ago wealthy, young Englishmen, began taking a post Oxbridge, trek through France and Italy in search of art culture and the roots of Western civilization. With. Nearly unlimited, funds aristocratic. Connections, and months or years to Rome they commissioned paintings, perfected, their language skills and mingled with the upper crust of the continent, the. Primary, value of the Grand Tour it was believed laid in the exposure both to the cultural, legacy of classical, antiquity and the Renaissance and to the aristocratic, and fashionably, polite society of, the European, continent. Topic. Emergence, of leisure travel, leisure travel, was associated, with the Industrial, Revolution in, the United Kingdom the, first European, country to promote leisure time to the increasing, industrial, population, initially. This applied to the owners of the machinery of production, the economic, oligarchy, factory, owners and traders these. Comprised, the new middle-class Cox. And Kings was the first official travel, company to be formed in 1758. The British origin of this new industry is reflected, in many place names in, Nice. France one, of the first and best established holiday. Resorts, on the French Riviera the long Esplanade, along the seafront is known to this day as the promenade, des anglais in many other historic, resorts, in continental, Europe old well-established, Palace, hotels have names like the hotel Bristol Hotel Carlton, or Hotel, Majestic reflecting. The dominance, of English customers. A pioneer. Of the travel agency, business Thomas, Cook's idea to offer excursions. Came to him while waiting for the stagecoach on, the London Road at Kidd Werth with.
The Opening of the extended, Midland counties railway he, arranged to take a group of 540. Temperance, campaigners from, Leicester Campbell Street Station, to a rally in Loughborough 11. Miles 18, kilometres, away on the. 5th of July 1841. Thomas, Cook arranged, for the rail company, to charge one shilling per person, this included, rail tickets, and food for the journey cook. Was paid a share of the fares charge to the passengers, as the railway tickets, being legal contracts, between company, and passenger, could not have been issued at his own price this. Was the first privately, chartered excursion. Train to be advertised, to the general public, Cooke himself, acknowledged, that there had been previous unadvertised. Private, excursion, trains, during. The following three summers he planned and conducted outings, for temperance societies and. Sunday-school children in. 1844. The Midland, counties railway company, agreed, make a permanent arrangement with, him provided, he found the passengers, this. Success, led him to start his own business running, rail excursions, for pleasure taking a percentage of the railway fares in 1855. He planned his first excursion, abroad, when he took a group from Leicester to Calais to coincide with the Paris Exhibition, the. Following year he started his grand circular, tours of Europe, during. The 1860s. He took parties to Switzerland, Italy Egypt in the United States, Cooke. Established, inclusive, independent, travel whereby the traveler went independently. But his agency, charged for travel food and accommodation. For a fixed period over any chosen route such. Was his success, that the Scottish railway companies, withdrew their support between. 1862. And 1863 to. Try the excursion, business for themselves. Topic. Cruise shipping, cruising is a popular, form of water tourism, leisure, cruise ships were introduced, by the Peninsular, and oriental, Steam, Navigation Company. P&O. In 1844. Sailing, from Southampton to. Destinations. Such as Gibraltar. Malta and Athens, in, 1891. German, businessman, Albert Balan sailed the ship Augusta, Victoria from. Hamburg into the Mediterranean, Sea June. 29, 1900. Was. Princess, in Victoria, Louise built, in Hamburg for the Hamburg America, Line. Topic. Modern-day. Tourism. Many, leisure oriented. Tourists, traveled to seaside resorts, on their nearest coast or further afield, coastal. Areas in the tropics, are popular, in both summer and winter. Topic. Mass tourism academics. Have defined mass tourism as travelled by groups on pre-scheduled. Tours usually. Under the organization, of tourism, professionals, this. Form of tourism developed. During the second half of the 19th century in, the United Kingdom and was pioneered, by Thomas, cook cook. Took advantage of Europe's rapidly, expanding, railway network, and established, a company that offered affordable, day trip excursions, to the masses, in addition, to longer holidays to continental, Europe India, Asia and the western hemisphere which, attracted, wealthier customers, by.
The 1890s, over. 20,000. Tourists, per year used Thomas, Cook and son the relationship, between tourism, companies transportation. Operators, and hotels as a central, feature of mass tourism Cooke, was able to offer prices, that were below the publicly, advertised, price because, his company purchased, large numbers of tickets from railroads, one. Contemporary, form, of mass tourism packaged, tourism, still incorporates, the partnership, between these three groups, Travel. Developed, during the early 20th century and, was facilitated. By the development. Of the automobiles, and later by airplanes. Improvements. In transport, allowed many people, to travel quickly to places, of leisure interest, so that more people could, begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time in continental. Europe, early seaside, resorts, included, heiligendamm, founded, in 1793. At, the Baltic Sea being the first seaside, resort, Ostend popularized. By the people, of Brussels, boulogne-sur-mer. And oval for the Parisians, tour Mina in Sicily in the. United States the first seaside, resorts, in the European, style were at Atlantic, City New Jersey and Long Island New York by. The mid 20th, century the Mediterranean, coast became, the principal, mass tourism destination. The. 1960s. And 1970s saw. Mass tourism play, a major role in the Spanish economic miracle. Topic. Niche, tourism. Niche, tourism refers, to the numerous specialty, forms of tourism that have emerged over the years each with its own adjective many. Of these terms have come into common use by the tourism, industry and academics. Others. Are emerging, concepts, that may or may not gain popular, usage. Examples. Of the more common niche tourism markets, are other. Terms used for niche or specialty travel. Forms include the term destination. In the, descriptions, such as destination, weddings, and terms such as location, vacation. Topic. Winter, tourism. St.. Moritz Switzerland became. The cradle of the developing, winter tourism in the 1860s. Hotel manager johannes Bhadra invited, some summer guests, from England to return in the winter to see the snowy landscape, thereby inaugurating. A popular, trend it. Was however only in the 1970s. When winter tourism took, over the lead from summer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts, even. In winter up to one third of all guests, depending, on the location consist, of non skiers, major ski resorts are located mostly in the various European, countries eg. Andorra. Austria Bulgaria. Bosnia. Herzegovina Croatia. Czech, Republic. Cyprus, Finland, France Germany Greece. Iceland. Italy Norway, Latvia. Lithuania Poland, Romania, Serbia. Sweden. Slovakia. Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland. Turkey Canada, the United States eg. Montana, Utah, Colorado, California. Wyoming. Vermont. New Hampshire New York Argentina, New Zealand, Japan South. Korea Chile, and Lebanon. Some. Places that already have ski opportunities. Can also have glaciers in the area some. Of theses places already offer a glacier, hike to see the glaciers in another way that they can one. Of these places are New Zealand, New, Zealand has several, glaciers, that are available for this experience, the, franz josef, is one of these glaciers, that tourism is available, the. Only way to get to the glacier is via a helicopter. Before. Helicopters. Were invented, the way that people were able to get up to the glacier was by hiking up to the glacier the. Companies, have to make sure that people are safe from when they are on the glacier, this. Would fall under environmental, tourism. As well as winter tourism. Topic. Recent. Developments. There, has been an uptrend, in tourism over the last few decades especially. In Europe where international, travel, for short breaks is common, tourists. Have a wide range of budgets and tastes and a wide variety of resorts, and hotels have, developed, to cater for them for. Example some, people prefer simple beach vacations. While others want more specialized, holidays, quieter, resorts, family-oriented. Holidays, or niche market, targeted, destination, hotels. The. Developments, in air transport, infrastructure, such, as jumbo, jets low-cost, airlines, and more accessible airports, have made many types of tourism more affordable.
The, W-h-o, estimated. In 2009. That there are around half a million people onboard aircrafts at any given time there. Have also been changes, in lifestyle, for example, some retirement, age people sustain year-round tourism, this. Is facilitated. By internet, sales of tourist services, some. Sites have now started to offer dynamic, packaging, in which an inclusive price, is quoted for a tailor-made package, requested, by the customer upon, impulse, there. Have been a few setbacks in, tourism such, as the September 11th, attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations. Such as in Bali and several, European cities also. On the 26th. Of December 2004. A tsunami caused, by the 2004. Indian, Ocean earthquake hit, the Asian countries, on the Indian Ocean including, the Maldives. Thousands. Of lives were lost including, many tourists, this, together, with the vast cleanup, operations, stopped her severely, hampered, tourism, in the area for a time individual. Low price or even zero price, overnight, stays have become more popular in the 2000s. Especially, with a strong growth in the hostel market and services, like couchsurfing, and Airbnb, being established, there. Has also been examples, of jurisdictions. Where in a significant, portion of GDP, as being spent on altering the primary, sources of revenue towards tourism, as has occurred for instance in Dubai. Topic. Sustainable. Tourism. Sustainable. Tourism has envisaged, as leading to management of all resources, in such a way that economic. Social, and aesthetic needs can, be fulfilled while, maintaining cultural, integrity, essential. Ecological. Processes. Biological. Diversity and, life-support, systems. World. Tourism Organization. Sustainable. Development, implies meeting. The needs of the present without compromising. The ability of future generations, to. Meet their own needs. World. Commission on Environment, and development, 1987. An important, part of sustainable, tourism as something known as the three pillars of sustainability, which include, economic, environmental. Ecological and, socio-cultural.
For. A destination, to be truly sustainable it, must have an equal balance among, the three pillars. Economic. Is in relation, to money and making and maintaining a certain amount of cash. Environmental. Is of course in relation to the environment it looks into whether the local ecosystems. Can support the influx of visitors and, also how these visitors, affect the ecosystem. Then. Finally, socio-cultural. Is about how well the culture of this area is able to maintain its traditions, with the incoming tourists, these. Pillars are important, because they are the true key to being sustainable, when discussing tourism, sustainable. Tourism can be seen as having regard, to ecological, and social cultural, carrying, capacities, and includes involving, the community of the destination, in tourism development planning, that was done eg in frascatore National, Park in Serbia it. Also involves, integrating, tourism, to match current economic, and growth policies, so as to mitigate some of the negative economic, and social impacts, of mass tourism, Murphy. 1985. Advocates, the use of an ecological approach, to consider both plants, and people, when implementing, the sustainable, tourism development, process, this. Is in contrast, to the boosterism and economic, approaches, to tourism planning, neither of which consider, the detrimental, ecological. Or sociological, impacts. Of tourism, development to a destination. However. Butler, questions, the exposition. Of the term sustainable. In the context, of tourism, citing, its ambiguity and stating that the, emerging sustainable. Development, philosophy. Of the ninth can. Be viewed as an extension, of the broader realization. That a preoccupation, with, economic, growth without, regard, to its social, and environmental, consequences. Is self-defeating. In the long term, thus. Sustainable. Tourism development, is seldom, considered, as an autonomous function, of economic, regeneration is, separate, from general economic. Growth. Topic. Ecotourism. Ecotourism. Also, known as ecological tourism, is responsible. Travel to fragile, pristine, and usually, protected areas, that strives to be low-impact and often small-scale, it. Helps educate, the traveler provides funds for conservation. Directly, benefits, the economic, development, and political empowerment of local communities, and fosters, respect, for different cultures and for human rights take only memories and leave only footprints, as a very common slogan in protected, areas, tourist. Destinations. Are shifting to low carbon emissions, following, the trend of visitors more focused, in being environmentally, responsible. Adopting, a sustainable, behavior.
Topic. Movie, tourism. The, movie tourism, is a form of tourism for those who visit the film and television locations. Ie the places used for filming a film or a television series, in addition. To organized, tours and not to film locations, lately, has widened the tendency, to a type of tourism linked, to the cinema which relates to events conventions and, more like the case of the dizzy and Aereo del Turismo, cinematographic. Ax. Topic. Dizzy, and REO del Turismo, cinematographic. Oh. The, dizzy and REO del Turismo, cinematographic. Oh as an artistic costume, movement originally, born as a journalistic. Column, on various, online and paper publications. Officially, in 2012, with a Genesis formed in the previous, decade but in the following years it has become a real costume fashion popularized. In sites associations. Institutions. Municipal, administrations. Political, parties movements, and television, listings, all over the world it. Also includes, museums, and sports groups linked to its brand the, purpose of the work is varied from the redevelopment. Of territorial, areas thanks to the artistic, interest raised to be film in fiction locations, movie tourism, to promote events linked, to the cinema as film anniversaries. Festivals, parties, to themed toga, party monster, party cosplay, party Hollywood. Party pajamas party etc. Manifestations. Born in films, are that the cinema has helped to divulge though already existing, as for example the, demolition, derby village, festivals, disseminated. By the cinema, such as those appearing, in the mondo cane film series, etc. We. Wanted to differentiate from movie tourism, a fashion, that has existed, for several decades to be more varied and not limited to tourism, that is a part of the dizzy and Aereo del Turismo, cinematographic. Ax in the. Mid-2000s. The student of video advertising, and journalistic, communications. At the turn branch of the Fellini Institute, Davide lingua called Dave lingua obsessed, with customary, phenomena, has in mind to create a totally, new object, to redevelop, areas territories, hit by the crisis, but fun and that leads to fashion accessible, to all this. Is the genesis for the creation of the dizzy and Aereo del Turismo, cinematographic. Ax a few. Years later between 2010, the beginning of the collaboration. And 2012. Creates with this name a column, which initially, deals with cine tourism, cinema, museums, and costume, party with a cinematic, theme within the site in that period related, to the homonymous paper magazine, of the milan group mondadori film, TV IT, which, soon became the most popular, of the magazine, with a myriad of collaborators, in the. Following period the dizzy Inari adulteries. Mo cinematography. Co appears as a column, in various newspapers and, magazines, the net week group loved J is mentioned, in La Stampa and many other newspapers, and officially, appears as a cultural, movement that gives full freedom to all to join simply, using the dizzy and Aereo del Turismo, cinematographic. Oh respecting, however the topics of interest of the movement coming to create totally, independent, sections but always within legally, registered, bodies, or associations. With their own statutes, and directives, but with only provided, that the official, founder helped at the beginning by the first members, Davide lingua is recognized as permanent, director for life in fact director, and not president, because he wants to underline the journalistic, origin, of the project.
From. Its birth until today the dizzy and REO del Therese most cinematographic. Oh is a worldwide journalistic. Column television, broadcasting. Has sections, in many associations. Institutions. That collaborate, with municipal, administrations. Has dealt with the official, celebrations. Of film shooting anniversaries. For example, solasko of the film bitter rice appears, in the credits of many films for the collaboration, given, organises, communication. Courses cultural. And sporting events etc. Topic. Volunteered, tourism. Volunteered. Tourism, or voluntourism, is growing, as a largely Western, phenomenon with volunteers, traveling, to aid those less fortunate than, themselves in, order to counter global inequalities. Wearing. 2001. Defines, volunteer, tourism as applying to those tourists, who for various reasons volunteer, in an organized, way to undertake, holidays, that might involve aiding or alleviating, the material, poverty of some groups in society. VSO. Was founded, in the UK in 1958. In the US Peace Corps was subsequently, founded, in 1960. These. Were the first large-scale voluntary. Sending, organizations, initially, arising, to modernize, less economically, developed countries, which it was hoped would curb the influence of communism this form of tourism is largely praised, for its more sustainable, approach to travel with tourists, attempting, to assimilate, into local cultures and avoiding the criticisms, of consumptive, and exploitative, mass tourism, however. Increasingly. Voluntourism. Is being criticised by scholars, who suggests, it may have negative effects, as it begins to undermine local, labor and force unwilling, host communities, to adopt Western initiatives. While host communities, without a strong heritage failed, to retain volunteers, who become dissatisfied with, experiences. And volunteer, shortages, persist. Increasingly. Organizations. Such as VSO, have been concerned, with community, centric, volunteer, programs, where power to control the future of the community is in the hands of local people. Topic. Pro-poor. Tourism. Pro-poor. Tourism, which seeks to help the poorest, people in developing, countries has been receiving increasing attention by, those involved, in development, the issue has been addressed through small-scale, projects, in local communities, and through attempts, by ministries, of tourism to attract large numbers of tourists. Research. By the Overseas, Development Institute. Suggests that, neither is the best way to encourage tourists. Money to reach the poorest, is only 25%. Or less far less in some cases ever reaches, the poor successful. Examples, of money reaching, the poor include mountain climbing, in Tanzania, and cultural, tourism in luang prabang laos. There. Is also the possibility of, pro port tourism, principles, being adopted in center sites of regeneration, in the developed, world. Topic. Recession. Tourism. Recession. Tourism as a traveled trend which evolved, by way of the world economic, crisis. Recession. Tourism is defined, by low cost and high-value experiences. Taking place of once popular, generic, retreats. Various. Recession, tourism hotspots have, seen business boomed during the recession, thanks to comparatively. Low costs, of living and a slow world job market, suggesting, travelers or elongated, trips where their money travels, further this. Concept, is not widely used in tourism research, it is related to the short-lived phenomenon, that is more widely known as staycation. Topic. Medical. Tourism. When. There is a significant. Price difference, between countries, for a given medical procedure particularly. In Southeast, Asia India, Eastern, Europe Cuba, and Canada where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation, to particular medical procedures, eg, dentistry, traveling, to take advantage, of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as medical, tourism. Topic. Educational. Tourism. Educational. Tourism has developed, because of the growing popularity. Of teaching, and learning of knowledge and the enhancing, of technical, competency, outside of classroom, environment, in, educational. Tourism the main focus, of the tour or leisure activity. Includes, visiting, another country to learn about the culture study, tours or to work in apply skills, learned inside the classroom, in a different environment such, as in the International, practicum, training program. Topic. Event, tourism. This, type of tourism as focused, tourists, coming into a region, to either participate. In an event or to see an organised event put on by the city region this. Type of tourism can also fall under sustainable. Tourism as well and companies that create a sustainable event. To attend open up a chance to not only the consumer, but their workers to learn and develop from the experience.
Creating. A sustainable, atmosphere, it creates a chance to inform, and encourage, sustainable, practices, an example. Of event tourism, would be the music festival, South by Southwest that, is hosted in Austin Texas annually. This. Is a perfect, example because, very year people from all over the world flocked to this one city for one week to sit in on technology, talks and see a whole city of bands perform, these. People, are being drawn here to experience something that they are not able to experience, in their hometown which is exactly, what event tourism, is about. Topic. Creative. Tourism. Creative. Tourism has existed, as a form of cultural tourism since, the early beginnings, of tourism, itself its, European, roots date back to the time of the grand tour which saw the sons of aristocratic. Families, traveling, for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational. Experiences. More. Recently creative, tourism has been given its own name by Crispin Raymond, and Greg Richards who is members of the Association. For tourism, and leisure education Atlas. Have directed a number of projects, for the European, Commission including. Cultural and crafts tourism known as sustainable, tourism they. Have defined, creative. Tourism as tourism. Related to the active participation of, travelers, in the culture of the host community, through interactive, workshops, and informal, learning experiences. Meanwhile, the concept, of creative, tourism has been picked up by high-profile. Organizations. Such as UNESCO, who through the creative, cities Network have endorsed, creative, tourism as an engaged authentic, experience, that promotes an active understanding, of the specific cultural. Features of a place, more. Recently creative, tourism has gained popularity as. A form of cultural tourism, drawing, on active participation by, travelers, in the culture of the host communities, they visit, several. Countries, offer examples, of this type of tourism development, including, the United, Kingdom Austria, France, the Bahamas, Jamaica Spain, Italy New, Zealand, and South Korea, the growing interest of tourists, in this new way to discover, a culture, regards, particularly. The operators, and branding managers attentive, to the possibility. Of attracting, a quality, tourism highlighting. The intangible, heritage, craft workshops, cooking, classes etc and, optimizing, the use of existing infrastructure, for example through, the rent of halls and auditorium. Topic. Experiential. Tourism. Experiential. Travel, or immersion. Travel. Is, one of the major market, trends in the modern tourism industry, it. Is an approach to traveling which focuses, on experiencing. A country, city or particular, place by connecting, to its history people food, and culture the term experiential. Travel, is already, mentioned in publications. From 1985. However, it was discovered as a meaningful market, trend much later. Topic. Dark, tourism. One. Emerging, area of special, interest has been identified by Lenin and fully 2000s. Dark, tourism. This, type of tourism involves, visits to dark, sites. Such as battlegrounds. Scenes of horrific crimes or, acts of genocide, for example, concentration. Camps its. Origins, are rooted in fairgrounds, and medieval fairs Phillip Stone argues, that dark tourism is a way of imagining one's, own death through the real death of others, Erik, H Cohen, introduces, the term populo, sites to. Evidence the educational. Character of dark tourism popular. Sites transmit the story of victimized, people, to visitors based, on a study at Yad Vashem the, Shoah Holocaust. Memorial, Museum in Jerusalem a new term in populo. Is proposed. To describe dark tourism sites at a spiritual, and population, center of the people to whom a tragedy befell, learning.
About The Shoah and Jerusalem, offers an encounter with the subject, which is different, from visits to sites in Europe but equally authentic, it is. Argued that a dichotomy, between authentic. Sites. At the location, of a tragedy in created. Sites. Elsewhere is insufficient, participants. Evaluations. Of seminars, for European, teachers at Yad Vashem indicate. That the location, is an important, aspect of a meaningful encounter, with the subject. Implications. For other cases of dark tourism at in popular, locations, are discussed, in this. Vein Peter Tarlow defines dark tourism as the tendency to visit the scenes of tragedies, or historically, noteworthy deaths which continue to impact our lives this. Issue cannot, be understood, without the figure of trauma. Topic. Social. Tourism. You. Social. Tourism, is making tourism, available, to poor people who otherwise could not afford to travel for their education, or recreation, it. Includes, youth hostels, and low-priced holiday, accommodation run. By church and voluntary, organizations, trade unions or in communist, times publicly, owned enterprises, in May. 1959. At the second Congress of social tourism, in Austria, Walther Hunziker proposed, the following definition. Social. Tourism, as a type of tourism practiced. By low-income, groups, and which is rendered possible, and facilitated. By entirely, separate, and therefore easily recognizable. Services. Topic. Doomed, tourism. Also. Known as tourism. Of doom or. Last-chance, tourism, this, emerging, trend involves, traveling, to places that are environmentally, or otherwise threatened, such as the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro the, melting glaciers of Patagonia or, the coral of the Great Barrier Reef before, it is too late, identified. By travel, trade magazine, travel age West editor-in-chief, Kenneth, Shapiro in 2007. And later explored. In the New York Times this type of tourism is believed to be on the rise, some. See the trend is related, to sustainable. Tourism or, ecotourism, due, to the fact that a number of these tourist destinations.
Are Considered, threatened by environmental, factors such as global warming overpopulation. Or climate change, others. Worry that traveled to many of these threatened, locations, increases, an individual's, carbon, footprint, and only hastens problems, threatened, locations, are already facing. Topic. Religious. Tourism. Religious. Tourism in particular. Religious, travel is used to strengthen faith and show devotion both of which are central tenets of many major religions. Religious. Tourists seek destinations. Whose image encourages, them to believe that they can strengthen, the religious, elements, of their self-identity in, a positive, manner given. This the perceived image of a destination, may be positively. Influenced, by whether it conforms to the requirements, of their religious, self-identity. Or not. Topic. Growth. The, World Tourism Organization un. WTO. Forecasts. That international, tourism will continue, growing at the average annual rate of 4%, with. The advent of e-commerce tourism, products, have become one of the most traded items on the Internet, tourism. Products, and services, have been made available through, intermediaries. Although tourism providers. Hotels, Airlines, etc. Including small-scale. Operators, can sell their services directly, this. Has put pressure on, intermediaries. From both online and traditional shops, it. Has been suggested there, is a strong correlation between tourism, expenditure. Per capita, and the degree to which countries, play in the global context, not. Only as a result of the important, economic contribution. Of the tourism industry but also as an indicator, of the degree of confidence, with which global, citizens, leverage, the resources of the globe for the benefit, of their local economies, this. Is why any projections. Of growth in tourism may serve as an indication, of the relative influence that, each country will exercise, in the future. Topic. Space, tourism. There, has been a limited amount of orbital, space tourism with only the Russian space agency providing. Transport, to date a, 2010. Report into, space tourism anticipated. That it could become a billion-dollar market, by 2030. Topic. Sports, tourism. Since. The late 1980s, sports, tourism has become increasingly popular. Events. Such as rugby Olympics, Commonwealth, Games Asian, Games and football World Cups have enabled specialist, travel companies, to gain official, ticket allocation. And then sell them in packages, that include flights, hotels, and, excursions. Topic. Latest, trends. As a result, of the late-2000s. Recession International. Arrivals suffered. A strong slowdown, beginning, in June 2008. Growth. From 2007. To 2008. Was only 3.7. Percent during, the first eight months of 2008. This. Slowdown on international. Tourism demand, was also reflected in the air transport, industry with, a negative growth in September, 2008. And a 3.3, percent growth, in passenger traffic through, September, the hotel. Industry also, reported, a slowdown, with room occupancy, declining, in. 2009. Worldwide, tourism, arrivals, decreased, by 3.8, percent by. The first quarter of 2009, real, travel, demand in the United States had fallen 6 percent over six quarters, while. This is considerably, milder than what occurred after the 9/11, attacks the decline was at twice the rate as real GDP, has fallen however evidence suggests. That tourism, as a global phenomenon, shows no signs of substantially. Abating in the long term it. Has been suggested that, travel is necessary, in order to maintain relationships.
As Social, life is increasingly, networked, and conducted, at a distance, for. Many people vacations. And travel are increasingly, being viewed as a necessity rather. Than a luxury and, this is reflected, in tourist numbers recovering. Some 6.6. Percent globally. Over 2009. With growth up to 8% in emerging economies. Equals. Equals see also.